Nutrient Profile and Nursery Feeding Damage of Halyomorpha halys (Hempitera: Pentatomidae) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/sx61dq06g

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  • Halyomorpha halys Stål, brown marmorated stink bug or BMSB, is now present in 43 US states. A native of eastern Asia, this pest can feed on ~200 different plant species damaging bark, leaves, buds, stems, and fruits. Many of these plant species include wild plants, ornamentals, and agricultural crops. BMSB has become a major pest for growers in different cropping systems from orchard to row crops. They are also a major nuisance for homeowners because they overwinter in high numbers in human structures, where they annoy occupants and can cause other problems. Currently, much research has focused on the control and biology of BMSB. This thesis focuses on areas of BMSB biology where there are substantial knowledge gaps: the nutritional ecology of wild BMSB, nutrient content of BMSB eggs, and how BMSB feeding affects nursery crop growth. Understanding of the nutritional profile of wild BMSB over the season can help us understand how BMSB behavior is driven by nutritional needs and can indicate periods when pest is nutrient-limited and potentially more susceptible to management. In Chapter 2, lipid, glycogen and sugar levels of wild adult BMSB populations were measured in the Willamette Valley of Oregon as they emerged from overwintering boxes from March through June and throughout the summer season from May to September. Emerging adults had lower nutrient levels than overwintering adults that remained in the shelter suggesting that nutrient limitation may drive adults to leave overwintering sites. Also, nutrient levels of emerging adults steadily declined over the months that they emerged. In the summer, nutrient levels of adults collected from holly host plants fluctuated, and a dip in nutrient levels was observed as the new generation of adults became abundant. In Chapter 3, the nutrient content of BMSB eggs were measured to describe what resources are provided to the progeny and to the natural enemies that feed on or develop within eggs. Also, various fresh and frozen egg masses are used for biological control studies, and nutrient comparisons were made between various egg masses to assess quality. BMSB eggs followed adult nutrient trends by having higher lipid levels compared to sugar and glycogen. Eggs did not vary in nutrient levels over the lifespan of the female suggesting that when supplied a consistent diet, females allocate a consistent amount of nutrient to their eggs as they age. Wild and colony egg clusters varied in lipid and sugar levels. The color change and age of the egg clusters did not influence the nutrient levels. The deployment length caused eggs to decrease in sugar and glycogen levels, however, temperature and deployment*temperature combinations did not. Eggs that were frozen at -80°C for 1-2 years were associated with declining lipid levels and increasing sugar levels. While BMSB has been reported to damage nursery crops, and especially fruit, their impact on plant growth has not been quantified. Experiments represented in Chapter 4 evaluated BMSB feeding damage to nursery plants by caging adults on established stock block trees in the field and young potted seedlings in the greenhouse. The impact appeared limited; the established trees and young seedlings mostly grew at similar rates to control plants. In addition to these three topics, four additional nutrient profiles studies and two studies on biological control are included in the Appendices. Baseline information on the nutrient levels of the general adult population of BMSB in Oregon (A.1), BMSB nymphs (A.3), and native stink bugs of Oregon (A.4) are provided. Nutrient comparisons in May-June revealed that BMSB collected from the host plant of holly had substantially higher nutrient reserves than BMSB just exiting overwintering (A.2). Methyl salicylate lures were tested in a nursery and found to have no significant effect on egg predation or parasitism (A.5). A commercially available entomopathogenic fungus was sprayed directly on BMSB nymphs; it induced 26% greater mortality than the controls over a 12-day period.
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