Inheritance and association of earliness and grain yield in four winter x spring wheat crosses (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) Public Deposited

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  • Parental and segregating populations derived from four winter x spring wheat crosses were investigated to obtain information concerning the inheritance and association of earliness, grain yield and yieldrelated traits. Feasibility of selecting in early generations for these characteristics was also evaluated. Four winter wheat cultivars (Hyslop, Yamhill, Bezostaia 1, and Sprague) and one spring wheat cultivar (Inia 66) were chosen on the basis of their relative maturity and contrasting agronomic characteristics. Parents, F₁ s, F₂' s, and reciprocal backcrosses to both parents were planted in the fall in a space-planted randomized complete block design. The two environmentally diverse locations selected were the Hyslop Agronomy Farm, Corvallis, Oregon (1000 mm of rainfall) and Sherman Experimental Station, Moro, Oregon (250 mm of rainfall). The effectiveness of early generation selection for the measured characteristics was evaluated by growing F₃ lines identified as the earliest 1% and the highest yielding 1% of F₂ individuals in each cross. These were grown along with the parents, F₁s, BC₁ s, BC₂ s and F₂' s under space-planted conditions at Hyslop Agronomy Farm. A study with the same populations was conducted by vernalizing and planting in the spring to gain further information on earliness. Analyses of variance were conducted for all characteristics measured. Frequency distributions for days to heading of F₁, F₂, backcross generations and parents were examined. From the data collected, estimates of F ₁ -midparent deviations, degree of dominance, heritability in the narrow sense and genetic advance under selection were determined for each cross. The data were further analyzed by parent-progeny regression, correlation and path-coefficient analyses, polynomial and multiple regressions. Partially dominant major genes, varying in number between one to five depending on the particular cross, appeared to influence heading date. Modifying factors also seemed to affect the date of heading. The gene action involved in the inheritance of earliness was primarily additive indicating that selection for earliness would be effective as early as the F₂ generation under both high and low rainfall conditions. Estimates of additive and nonadditive gene action suggested both were equally important in determining the yield components. Higher heritability estimates for the components of yield indicated that there was more genetic variability associated with the yield components than yield per se. Occurrence of additive genetic variation by location interaction implied that selection should be practiced simultaneously under different environments if wide adaptability of potential lines is desired. Since pronounced additive effect by year interactions occurred for the yield components, delayed selection for these traits may not be productive. Positive correlations were obtained between yield and the number of days to heading when all generations were combined. However, in the F₂ generations, it appeared possible to select for the desired earliness with high yields as indicated by the low association between these two traits. The path-coefficient analyses suggested that tiller number had the highest direct effect on grain yield. However, because of a negative association between tiller number and kernel weight, selection pressures would have to be balanced between these two components. In most cases, linear relationships existed between grain yield and seven measured traits, respectively. The result of regression analyses also showed that grain yield may be described best as a linear function of its components.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-11-06T17:43:45Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 FiratAhmetE1978.pdf: 1077108 bytes, checksum: 1784d5926b89f790da2a1aeae86b1e5d (MD5)
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