Effect of controlled vitamin B-6 intake and pyridoxine supplementation on B-6 status of smokers Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/td96k4889

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  • Previous studies have found that smoking may have a negative effect on vitamin B-6 indices and have demonstrated a possible association between smoking and depressed plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration. Individuals with plasma PLP values below the adequate level of 30 nmoles/L might benefit from consumption of vitamin B-6 supplements, but no data are available on vitamin B-6 status in smokers consuming a controlled vitamin B-6 intake and receiving a vitamin B-6 supplement. The objectives of this research were to assess vitamin B-6 status in smokers as compared to non-smokers receiving a controlled diet and to evaluate the effect of an oral vitamin B-6 supplementation in these subjects. The vitamin B-6 (B-6) status of 5 (four males / one female) smokers (S) and 4 (three males / one female) non-smokers (NS) was assessed. A constant diet was fed for 20 days and provided 1.95 mg of B-6 or 1.65 mg of B-6 for males and females, respectively. For the last 10 days, an additional 2-mg of pyridoxine (PN) was given daily. Blood samples were collected on days 1.7, 11.14 and 21; and 24 hour urine samples were collected daily. Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) and total B-6 (UB6) excretion, plasma B-6 vitamers (PLP, PN, pyridoxal and 4-PA) and red blood cell PLP (RBC PLP) concentrations, as well as plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were determined. Mean plasma PLP, 4-PA, and RBC PLP concentrations were significantly lower (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) at all time points in S compared to NS. With a daily supplement of 2-mg vitamin B-6, the mean plasma PLP concentration of S increased 85.8% but was 48.5% lower than that of NS consuming 1.65-1.95 mg/d of B-6. Mean plasma pyridoxal concentrations were not different between S and NS before and after supplementation. Excretion of 4-PA was not significantly different between S and NS, but the mean values of 4-PA excretion were consistently greater in NS compared to that of S throughout the 20-day study. The percent of ingested B-6 excreted as 4-PA for the S and NS was 38 and 49 in the non-supplemented period, and 47 and 53 in the supplemented period, respectively, indicating that non-smokers excreted more 4-PA than smokers. However, the difference in 4-PA excretion between S and NS was not significantly different both before and after supplementation (P>0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between S and NS for plasma PN concentration, AP, and UB6 excretion for both periods. Results suggested an adverse effect of smoking on B-6 metabolism, thus an increased requirement of vitamin B-6 in smokers. A 2-mg PN supplement was sufficient to bring the concentration of plasma PLP in smokers to the level suggested as adequate, but it didn't bring it to the level of non-smokers.
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