Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Authentic West African and West African influenced apparel textiles of the 1960's and 1970's as depicted in Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle magazines Public Deposited

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  • The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of West African influence on apparel textiles in the United States during the 1960's and 1970's as depicted in four magazines, Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle. The objectives of the study were to: establish a frequency of occurrence for the use of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles, determine the periods of greatest use of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles, determine if there were a difference among the magazines in frequency of occurrence of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles, determine the most frequent specific West African apparel textile designs and motifs and determine the levels of cultural authentication that occurred with the borrowing and use of West African apparel textiles all within the United States during the period beginning in 1960 up to and including 1979 as depicted in Ebony, Life,, Time and Mademoiselle magazines. Issues of Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle magazines from every other month beginning with January dating from 1960 to 1979 were sampled (n = 438). Time and Life were weekly publications therefore the first issue of each month was used. Life magazine was not used from 1973 to 1979 as it was temporarily discontinued. Each illustration, color and black and white, showing West African and/or West African influenced apparel textiles was analyzed. In order to achieve percentages of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles for each magazine, the November issues of Ebony and Mademoiselle magazines from each year were sampled (n = 40) to determine the number of non-West African and non-West African influenced apparel textiles. Content analysis methodology was used. The text accompanying the illustrations was used to determine the origin and type of textile design. To test the reliability of the researcher's judgement, a pilot test for interjudge reliability was conducted. The researcher and two judges examined issues of Ebony, JJ.t. and Mademoiselle magazines. lnterjudge reliability for West African and West African influenced apparel textiles was 100%, and for non-West African and non-West African influenced apparel textiles it was 87% - 99%. Descriptive statistics in the form of frequency counts and percentages were utilized. Chi square contingency tables were used to test the hypotheses. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in frequency of occurrence of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles in the United States from all four magazines between the decades of the 1960's and 1970's as depicted in Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle magazines. No significant difference was found between the decades unless the magazines were analyzed individually. Ebony and Mademoiselle individually showed significant differences between the frequencies of occurrences in the 1960's as compared to the 1970's of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles. There were no occurrences in any of the issues of Life and Time sampled. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in frequency of occurrence of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles in the United States between Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle magazines during the period beginning in 1960 up to and including 1979. There was a difference in frequency of occurrence of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles between the four magazines because no occurrences were found in Life and Time. Cultural authentication theory was used as the theoretical framework for this study. Cultural authentication was developed as a means of distinguishing nonwestern dress from western dress (Eicher and Erekosima, 1980). It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in frequency of occurrence among the levels of cultural authentication of West African textile designs in the United States during the period beginning in 1960 up to and including 1979 as depicted in Ebony, Life, Time and Mademoiselle magazines. This hypothesis was not tested because only 11 illustrations had evidence of selection, the first level of cultural authentication. West African and West African influenced apparel textiles were apparent in the 1960's and 1970's as depicted in Ebony, Li.t., Time and Mademoiselle magazines but were not as frequent as had been expected from the literature reviewed. Most of the overall occurrences of West African and West African influenced apparel textiles and all of the 1960's occurrences were in Ebony, a magazine targeted towards African Americans. A variety of West African and West African influenced apparel design types occurred in the 1970's in Ebony and Mademoiselle, only kente cloth occurred in the 1960's.
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