Teacher influence-behaviors and teacher-student interaction patterns in selected Oregon chemistry classes Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/th83m253n

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  • The study is designed to determine what differences exist between the nonverbal as well as verbal behaviors and teacher-student interaction patterns in selected CHEM Study and traditional chemistry classes in Oregon. Analysis of behavior in these classes is in terms of a new observation system developed by H. D. Schalock of Teaching Research, Monmouth, Oregon. Since the system had never been used in high school classes and in live, as opposed to video recorded, classroom situations for times up to one hour, the degree of the utility of the system for its use in the study was also investigated. Seven CHEM Study and nine traditional chemistry teachers participated in the study. Each teacher (a) taught either a CHEM Study or a traditional chemistry course in an accredited high school, (b) had at least three years of teaching experience, (c) had earned a master's degree or an equivalent of a bachelor's degree plus 45 quarter hours of credit, (d) taught a class with heterogeneous or average ability-grouped students, and (e) was willing to cooperate in the study. Each participating teacher was observed for five class periods. The first class observation served for acclimatization purposes only. Teacher behavior is described by seven major categories, each of which is nested within one of three larger categories. "Structures," "Guides," and "Provides Solutions" are nested within "Exposure to Information; " "Questions" and "Directs" are nested within "Precipitation of Performance;" and "Positive Reinforcement" and "Negative Reinforcement" are nested within "Evaluation of Performance." Three categories describing non-cognitive, non-teaching, and teacher initiating behavior as a result of some student activity are also included. Student behavior is described in terms of "Initiating" and "Asked" as well as "Unasked" response behavior. These are further described to indicate "Stating," "Questioning," "Silence," "Nonverbal," and "Affective" behavior. Teacher and student behavior is also described to indicate if the interaction involved one student or more than one student. Full use of the Schalock system was not made in the study. The development of a special audio-recording technique was necessitated by the considerable amount of verbal and nonverbal behavior to be coded in the classrooms. The observer, in the back of the classroom, superimposed in code all nonverbal teacher and student behavior onto the same sound track that recorded all verbal behavior. This the observer accomplished by speaking into a microphone that was connected to the audio-recording equipment. This technique not only allowed the observer to concentrate efficiently on classroom behavior for periods up to one hour, but also allowed the coding of classroom behavior at a place and time convenient to the coder. All coded interactions were timed to differentiate between the varying times of each teacher and student interaction. Timing was accomplished by means of a kymograph which pulled adding-machine tape at a steady rate over a specially designed coding area. Findings The following conclusions were drawn from the data obtained and analyzed in the study. 1. No significant differences exist between CHEM Study and traditional chemistry teacher and student behaviors, interaction patterns, and the manner in which interaction is initiated and maintained. 2. The behavior observed in the classes of participating chemistry teachers differs little from the behavior of secondary teachers elsewhere. The teacher-to-student verbal and nonverbal interaction ratio in the chemistry classes is approximately 3.7 to 1. Teacher behavior is in the form of "Exposure to Information" (56%), "Precipitation of Performance" (17%), and "Evaluation of Performance" (4%). Student behavior averages 22% in all classes. Student initiating behavior, usually in the form of short questions or comments, accounts for approximately 4%. Response behavior is in the form of "Asked" student response (4%), "Unasked" student response (7%), and response from more than one student, i. e. , groups of students, (6-7%). 3. An Indirect to Direct (I/D) teacher ratio, patterned after Flanders, was determined by dividing the sum of percentages of "Guides," "Questions," "Positive Reinforcement," and "Socializing" behavior by the sum of percentages of "Structures," "Provides Solutions," "Directs," and "Negative Reinforcement" behavior. This ratio not only has use in describing teacher behavior, but also serves to differentiate between teachers with high or low I/D ratios. Teachers with the higher I/D ratios also showed significantly increased student behavior in the form of response behavior.
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