Development and application of a new passive sampling device : the lipid-free tube (LFT) sampler Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/tq57nt46m

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  • Contaminants can exist in a wide range of states in aqueous environments, especially in surface waters. They can be freely dissolved or associated with dissolved or particulate organic matter depending on their chemical and physical characteristics. The freely dissolved fraction represents the most bioavailable fraction to an organism. These freely dissolved contaminants can cross biomembranes, potentially exerting toxic effects. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) have been developed to aid in sampling many of these contaminants by having the ability to distinguish between the freely dissolved and bound fraction of a contaminant. A new PSD, the Lipid-Free Tube (LFT) sampler was developed in response to some of the shortcomings of other current PSD that sample hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The device and laboratory methods were original modeled after a widely utilized PSD, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), and then improved upon. The effectiveness, efficiency, and sensitivity of not only the PSD itself, but also the laboratory methods were investigated. One requirement during LFT development was to ensure LFTs could be coupled with biological analyses without deleterious results. In an embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity assay, embryos exposed to un-fortified LFT extracts did not show significant adverse biological response as compared to controls. Also, LFT technology lends itself to easy application in monitoring pesticides at remote sampling sites. LFTs were utilized during a series of training exchanges between Oregon State University and the Centre de Recherches en Ecotoxicologie pour le Sahel (CERES)/LOCUSTOX laboratory in Dakar, Senegal that sought to build "in country" analytical capacity. Application of LFTs as biological surrogates for predicting potential human health risk endpoints, such as those in a public health assessment was also investigated. LFT mass and accumulated contaminant masses were used directly, representing the amount of contaminants an organism would be exposed to through partitioning assuming steady state without metabolism. These exposure concentrations allow for calculating potential health risks in a human health risk model. LFT prove to be a robust tool not only for assessing bioavailable water concentrations of HOCs, but also potentially providing many insights into the toxicological significance of aquatic contaminants and mixtures.
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