Process optimization and electrical characterization of ZnS:Mn electroluminescent phosphors deposited by halide transport chemical vapor deposition Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/tx31qk963

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  • Process development of halide transport chemical vapor deposited (HTCVD) ZnS:Mn thin film has been studied. To this end, electrical characterization of HTCVD ZnS:Mn electroluminescent devices has been used. Process optimization focused on a simple design of experiment (DOE) with brightness as the major response. Deposition parameters such as HCl and H₂S gas flow rates, ZnS and Mn source temperatures and substrate temperature were studied. A substrate temperature of 550°C gives the brightest devices. ZnS source temperature and H₂S gas flow rate are insignificant parameters according to the statistical analysis. However HCl gas flow rate and Mn source temperature show strong interaction. It is proposed that the incorporation of Cl into the ZnS:Mn film causes the interaction. A Cl defect is also consistent with anomalous electrical behavior observed in the devices. Cl defects are thought to precipitate at the grain boundaries of the initial growth interface, then diffuse (or migrate) along the grain boundaries and possibly into the bulk crystal. This defect will easily form negative charge leading to asymmetric space charge in the bulk of the phosphor. Since the defects are believed to originate from the nucleation of Cl at high grain boundary density, one potential solution is to remove the Cl source as the grains begin to grow and only later expose the film to Cl. While film growth without HCl present at the beginning of deposition leads to brighter films, it is a sub-optimal solution. Part of the ZnS host does not have luminescent centers. It is believed other processing solutions need to be realized to make the HTCVD system viable.
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