Fatty acids of exercised and non-exercised salmon Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/v979v6485

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  • The fatty acids of coho salmon were identified and then a study was conducted to determine the effects of exercise on the fatty acids of salmon forced to swim against water velocities of 52, 54, 56, and 59 cm/sec, The shorter and lighter salmon were less competent at a given velocity than were the longer and heavier salmon. The metabolism of exercise, the unexpected selection by the exercise procedure of long and short fish, and time of holding in the laboratory were involved in the differences noted between control and exercised salmon, Seven saturated and twenty unsaturated fatty acids were found in the lipids of the coho salmon. At all four velocities between 13 and 18 fatty acids were present in significantly smaller quantities after swimming than in control salmon. At 52 and 54 cm/sec the greater changes were in acids 16:0, 16:1, and 18:2; at 56 cm/sec in 22:6, 20:4, and 18:2; and at 59 cm/sec in 14:0, 18:2, and 18:4. Salmon swimming for shorter distances at high velocities preferentially metabolize a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. The average swimming times for salmon swimming at velocities of 52, 54, 56, and 59 cm/sec were 1141, 645, 469, and 398 minutes respectively. The average distances traveled for salmon swimming at 52, 54, 56, and 59 cm/sec were 26.0, 16.9, 13.7, and 12.7 miles respectively. The average weight of control salmon was 5.22 grams and the average weights of swimming salmon were 4.39, 4, 28, 4.81, and 4.74 grams, respectively, for water velocities of 52, 54, 56, and 59 cm/sec. The average amount of lipid for control salmon was 233 mg and the average amounts of lipids for swimming salmon were 179, 206, 245, and 223 mg respectively. The average amount of fatty acid methyl esters for control salmon was 189 mg and the average amounts of fatty acid methyl esters for swimming salmon were 149, 169, 192, and 178 respectively. Brett (21) has provided information relating swimming velocity and oxygen consumption for sockeye salmon. The estimated average oxygen consumption for salmon swimming at 52 cm/sec was 98.4 mg and at 59 cm/sec was 53.7 mg. Since 1 mg of oxygen will burn 0.38 mg of lipid, the lipid equivalent of the total estimated oxidative costs for exercise are 37.0 mg at 52 cm/sec and 20 mg at 59 cm/sec. The observed lipid losses noted were 54 mg at 52 cm/sec and 10 mg at 59 cm/sec and are considerably higher at 52 cm/sec than calculated values even when all oxidative losses are attributed to lipids. At 52 cm/sec the weight loss for swimming salmon was 830 mg and at 59 cm/sec was 480 mg. Of the total loss, lipids represent 54 and 10 mg respectively-. Approximately 80% or 664 and 384 mg may have been water. The protein plus carbohydrate losses were approximately 112 mg and 86 mg respectively. The lipid losses represent 502 and 93 calories, the protein plus carbohydrate losses approximately 616 and 473 calories, and the total caloric losses were 1118 and 566 calories at 52 and 59 cm/sec respectively. Similar losses calculated from the oxygen consumption data of Brett (21) on Oncorhynchus nerka give 344 and 188 calories respectively. The caloric cost as estimated from material losses are three times as great as the losses calculated from the oxygen consumption data of Brett. However, the oxygen consumption data of Brett were collected during one, and at the most two hours at high velocity. It seems reasonable that when a maximum effort is involved, that each succeeding mile and each succeeding hour is more difficult and more costly to the salmon. Brett (21) found a ratio for maximum active metabolism to standard metabolism of 8:1 for a 5 gram fish. If the data in this study on material balance are supported by further bioenergetic data, for prolonged exercise the ratio of active to standard metabolism may even reach a value of 24:1 on the basis of calories lost.
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