Known as the fourth industrial revolution, digitization is an ongoing trend in all ﬁelds, in which various industries are integrating information technologies to support and improve their businesses. Nuclear technology industries have also increased their interest in data-driven methods by leveraging the potential of pattern recognition to identify anomalies and to take actions more rapidly, in areas such as health and monitoring, radiation detection, and optimization. By acknowledging the practicality and popularity of these methods, it is imperative to understand the benefits and barriers of implementing such methodologies to create better research plans and identify project risks and opportunities. This dissertation discusses different technologies and their integration and challenges within the nuclear industry. It is recognized that concepts of complexity and emergent behavior, as well as the importance of such properties as a distinctive aspect of nuclear and radiological engineering problems in which holistic approaches are crucial to innovation. Overall, the development and application of learning-based methods can be promising in the nuclear industry and many related tasks as long as expert knowledge is considered in the desired application to ensure a robust application of such methods. Cross-discipline studies and the creation of benchmarks are highly suggested for future practices.