- This investigation was designed to measure certain visually
perceived nonverbal behaviors of teachers in an effort to learn the
relationships between these behaviors and the affective responses of
students to the teachers, To this end, teachers were videotaped, and
the tapes were shown to students for their affective responses.
Thirty teachers, at different grade levels and with different
subject matter affiliations, were videotaped while teaching one of their
own classes. These tapes, ranging from 15 to 35 minutes in length,
were edited to produce two taped episodes of five minutes duration for
each teacher. In addition, 15-second segments, to be used as measures
of first impressions, were prepared for each teacher.
To measure the nonverbal behaviors displayed by the teachers
an instrument for coding the behaviors was developed. The reliability
of the instrument was established on the basis of computed coefficients
of interobserver agreement.
A total of 879 students in grades seven through nine, none of
whom were familiar with the teachers who appeared in the videotapes,
were shown the videotapes of the teachers. No sound accompanied the
visual images of the teachers. Thus only visual information was available
for the establishment of affective responses. Each student supplied
an affective rating for each teacher viewed. For this purpose,
a semantic differential scale, with the expressions Liked Very Much
and Disliked Very Much at the respective poles of the scale, was employed.
In addition, students were asked to record the teacher characteristics,
on which they had based their affective ratings, on a data
card which was turned in to the investigator. Approximately half of
the students supplied affective ratings, but no comments, to the first
impression segments for each teacher.
When the nonverbal behaviors displayed on the teacher tapes
had all been coded by means of the nonverbal behavior instrument and
mean values of student affective responses to each teacher had been
determined, all of the data were transferred to computer cards and
analyzed by means of a stepwise multiple regression analysis program.
Separate analyses were performed to determine (a) the reliability
of the nonverbal behavior instrument, (b) the identity of nonverbal
behaviors which would serve as significant predictors of student affective response, and (c) whether students were consciously
aware of the teacher nonverbal behaviors when they made their affective
ratings of the teachers.
1. On the basis,Of satisfactorily high coefficients of interobserver
agreement the instrument employed in the investigation was
judged to be a reliable measure of teacher nonverbal behaviors.
The overall Tr value for the instrument was . 79.
Z. The teacher nonverbal behaviors were analyzed in relation to student
affective response in terms of both frequency and duration
measurements of the behaviors, separately and in combination.
When analyzed in combination the duration measures consistently
proved to be better predictors than the frequency measures and it
was concluded that the relationship between student affective responses
and teacher nonverbal behavior can be predicted more
effectively when the teachers' nonverbal behaviors are measured
in terms of their duration.
3. Analysis of the combined affective responses of boys and girls to
the teachers indicated that regardless of the sex of the respondent,
students showed a higher degree of liking for teachers who smiled
often and who held up books, photographs, etc. for the class to
4. When boys' and girls' affective responses were analyzed separately
and compared, differences related to sex became apparent.
Boys tended to show a higher degree of liking for teachers who
were younger and who employed more gestures while teaching.
Girls appeared to base their affective responses on first impressions
more than did boys. Also, girls preferred teachers who
seldom manipulated objects while teaching.
5. A significant difference between the number of students who reported
nonverbal behaviors as the basis of their affective ratings
of the teachers and those who failed to report such behaviors,
seemed to indicate that students tend to make affective judgments
in the absence of consciously perceived awareness of
the teachers' specific nonverbal behaviors.