Nature of inheritance, genotype-environment interaction and association of selected agronomic characters in crosses of winter X spring wheats (triticum aestivum L. em Thell) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/vh53x0552

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  • This investigation was motivated by the apparent increase in genetic variability resulting from the systematic combining of gene pools represented by winter and spring types of wheats. It was the objective of this study to provide information regarding the nature of this genetic variability for nine agronomic characters in populations resulting from winter x spring crosses. Evaluations were made for: 1) the amount of total genetic variability; 2) the nature of the gene action making up this genetic variability using parent-progeny regression and combining ability analysis and 3) possible direct and indirect associations for traits which influence grain yield. Experimental populations which involved parents, Fl, F2 and backcross generations were grown at two locations where a spring and a winter environment could be utilized. At the winter site, the research was evaluated over a two year period. When the two experimental sites were compared, greater genetic diversity was observed at the spring site for maturity date, plant height, tillers per plant, kernel weight and grain yield. At the winter site, heading date, grain filling period, harvest index and kernels per spike were found to have more total genetic variation. From the expected mean square values, it would appear that the winter parents contributed more to the total genetic variation for most traits measured at both locations. A large genotype-location interaction was also noted suggesting that estimates of gene action and selection for adapted plant types can be done only at the specific winter or spring site. A large portion of the total genetic variation controlling the traits measured was due to additive gene action. However, at the winter site there was also a large influence of non-additive gene action associated with heading date, plant height, harvest index, tillers per plant, kernel weight, kernels per spike and grain yield. Of special interest was that at the winter site the most promising parental combinations could be predicted based on the general combining ability effects of the individual cultivars for each trait studied. Such data were not available for the spring site. Consistent and high correlations were observed between tillers per plant, kernels per spike and, to a lesser extent, kernel weight and grain yield at the winter location. Some negative associations were observed at the spring location between these traits and grain yield suggesting that yield component compensations were involved in the final expression of grain yield. The other characters measured did not reflect significant correlations with yield. When the correlation values were considered in terms of direct and indirect effects for specific traits, a large direct effect was noted for the three components and grain yield. The other traits exhibited small or no direct effects on grain yield but did have a slight influence on grain yield through tillers per plant, kernels per spike or kernel weight.
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