Heritability estimates and associations for protein content and grain yield involving four winter wheat crosses (Triticum aestivum Vill., Host) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/vm40xv51t

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  • Four agronomically and genetically diverse winter wheat parents were utilized as the experimental organisms. Atlas 66 and NB 68513 were selected as cultivars with a high and stable protein content when grown under different environmental condidtions. They are intermediate for grain yield when grown in the Pacific Northwest. Yamhill and Hyslop represented low protein, high yielding cultivars adapted to the Pacific Northwest. Data were obtained from crosses between the two high protein cultivars and the two low protein cultivars based on the performance of the parents and the F₁ and F₂ generations. These experimental populations were grown in 1971 at the Pendleton Experiment Station and the Central Oregon Experimental site at Madras, Oregon. Measurements were made on an individual plant basis for protein content, grain yield, 50 kernel weight, kernels per spike, tillers per plant and plant height. Differences among and within crosses were determined by the analysis of variance. Information concerning the nature of inheritance was obtained by comparing the F₁ and F₂ means in relation to performance of the parents; the frequency distribution of the generations for protein content; and by determining broad and narrow sense heritability estimates for the six characters studied. The existence of possible phenotypic associations among the six characters studied was determined by using correlation coefficients. In order to evaluate the possible direct and indirect effects of grain yield and the components of yield on protein content, path coefficient analyses were employed. Significant differences were observed among and within crosses at both the Pendleton and Madras sites for most characters measured. The F₁ and F₂ mean values were found to be near the mid-parent of the two parents in all four crosses for plant height, 50 kernel weight and kernels per spike. There were several exceptions depending on the particular cross and specific character. Protein content mean values were also intermediate between the two parents for the F₁ and F₂ generations. In crosses involving Hyslop, the mean values tended to be near the highest parent. Little or no transgressive segregation was noted in the F₂ generation. Evidence of non additive gene action was noted both for grain yield and tiller number in the F₁ and F₂ generations with the mean values exceeding the highest parent in all crosses for grain yield at the Pendleton site. Tillers per plant at Pendleton and both tillers per plant and grain yield at Madras also showed some degree of hybrid vigor, but the magnitude depended on the particular cross. The high broad and narrow sense heritability estimates obtained both at Pendleton and Madras for all traits suggested that there was a large amount of genetic variation present for the characters studied. The narrow sense estimates further suggested that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was due to genes which function in an additive manner. Significant negative correlations were noted between protein content and grain yield including some of the components of yield. In evaluating the direct and indirect effects with path coefficient analysis, these negative associations resulted from the large negative indirect effects of 50 kernel weight and kernels per spike on protein content via grain yield at the Madras site. At the Pendleton site, where moisture became a limiting factor, the negative association resulted largely as the indirect effect of 50 kernel weight on protein content through grain yield. The large environmental influence on protein content was particularly striking at the Pendleton site. With the spring application of nitrogen, a delay in maturity for Hyslop and Yamhill was noted and with the subsequent loss of moisture, shriveled grain resulted and hence a higher protein content with lower grain yield. This resulted in the grain protein of Hyslop and Yamhill being higher than that of Atlas 66 and NB 68513. The results of this study suggest that it may be necessary to compromise in attempting to develop high protein lines with maximum yield. However, it should be possible to increase the protein content two to three percent and still maintain the yielding ability of Hyslop and Yamhill.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Katy Davis(kdscannerosu@gmail.com) on 2014-02-24T19:11:02Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 SolenPolat1973.pdf: 608507 bytes, checksum: ee1737913de849c4b0b90d7bef3e99c4 (MD5)

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