Ultra-wideband indoor localization systems Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/w3763982h

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  • Indoor localization systems have a variety of applications such as tracking of assets, indoor robot navigation, and monitoring of people (e.g. patients) in hospitals or at home. Global positioning system (GPS) offers location accuracy of several meters and is mainly used for outdoor location-based applications as its accuracy degrades significantly in indoor scenarios. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) have also been used for indoor localization, but the accuracy is too low and power consumption of WLAN terminals is too high for most applications. Ultra-wideband (UWB) localization is superior in terms of accuracy and power consumption compared with GPS and WLAN localization, and is thus more suitable for most indoor location-based applications [1-4]. The accuracy and precision requirements of localization systems depend on the specific characteristics of the applications. For example, centimeter or even millimeter localization accuracy is required for dynamic part tracking, while decimeter accuracy might be sufficient for tracking patients in hospitals or at home. Note that accuracy is not the only aspect of the overall performance of the system. Factors such as cost, range, and complexity should also be considered in system design. In the first part of this dissertation, a centimeter-accurate UWB localization system is developed. The technical challenges to achieve centimeter localization accuracy are investigated. Since all the receivers are synchronized through wire connection in this system, a wireless localization system with centimeter accuracy is introduced in order to make the system easier for deployment. A two-step synchronization algorithm with picosecond accuracy is presented, and the system is tested in a laboratory environment. The second part of this dissertation focuses on reducing the complexity of UWB localization systems when the localization accuracy requirement is relaxed. An UWB three-dimensional localization scheme with a single cluster of receivers is proposed. This scheme employs the time-of-arrival (TOA) technique and requires no wireless synchronization among the receivers. A hardware and software prototype that works in the 3.1-5.1 GHz range is constructed and tested in a laboratory environment. An average position estimation error of less than 3 decimeter is achieved by the experimental system. This TOA scheme with receivers in a single unit requires synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver unit. In order to further reduce system complexity, a new time-difference-of-arrival localization scheme is proposed. This scheme requires multiple units, each operating on its own clock. It avoids synchronization between the transmitter and receivers, and thus makes the development of the transmitter extremely simple. The performance of this system is simulated and analyzed analytically, and turns out to be satisfactory for most indoor localization applications.
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