|Abstract or Summary
- Every student has a creative potential. An atmosphere needs
to be maintained in the classroom that motivates and encourages the
student to use and to develop this potential. Evidence indicates that
teachers need help in freeing and in stimulating each student's creative
potential. A learning package on design principles was developed
to motivate students and develop their creative potential as evidenced
by the results of a pre and a post test, Figural Forms A and B of
Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking.
Three lists were compiled from a review of current literature
concerning creativity: (1) characteristics of the creative person,
(2) guidelines for developing learning experiences to develop creative
potential, and (3) guidelines for teachers who wish to develop the
creative potential of their students.
The first two lists were utilized in the construction of the behavioral
objectives and learning experiences in the package. Each behavioral
objective was designed to incorporate two of the five main categories
of characteristics of the creative person. Two of the seven
categories on the list of guidelines for developing learning experiences
were used in each learning experience.
The learning package contained five sections, Emphasis, Balance,
Rhythm, Proportion, and Harmony, and "Idea Sheets." Using
a questionnaire, 27 home economists evaluated the package rating
from one to five how well each behavioral objective or learning experience
satisfied its criteria.
A mean rating was computed for each item on the questionnaire.
If the mean was lower than 3.5, the writer either justified or revised
the behavioral objective or learning experience.
The package was used by the writer's high school advanced
clothing class of 12 members. Before beginning the package the students
were divided in half. One half was given Figural Form A and
the other half was given Figural Form B of Torrance Tests of Creative
Thinking as a pretest. The forms were reversed in the post test so
the students did not take the same test twice.
After initial confusion and frustration most of the students indicated
verbally and demonstrated their interest and enjoyment in the
package. A test focused on the subject matter of the package seemed to be quite difficult as evidenced by low mean scores for each section
and for the total test.
A t test revealed no significant difference between the group
which was given Figural Form A followed by Figural Form B and the
group which was given Figural Form B followed by Figural Form A.
Therefore, the data were combined and a t test of the mean gain in
score was significant at the one percent level for fluency, flexibility,
and originality. Mean gain for elaboration was not significant.
Results reveal that even though the students scored poorly on
the learning package subject matter test, they did develop creativity
in the areas of fluency, flexibility, and originality. One needs to
recall that the purpose of the learning package was not acquisition of
subject matter information, but development of creativity.
Because of the nature of creativity, characteristics of the creative
person, and guidelines that should be followed in creative development,
the writer was not able to give some types of assistance to
students while they were working on the package. The writer feels
that if this help had been given, more subject matter information
would have been acquired However, this action might have resulted
in less creativity.
The importance of the teacher in this learning experience is
quite obvious. The teacher must have the knowledge and the ability
to create and to maintain an environment conducive to the development
of creativity if creative development is to be fostered