The solution chemistry and kinetic behavior of hafnium peroxy sulfate solutions ("HafSOx") is described in terms of peroxide content and solution speciation. Additionally, thin film behavior, including thermal behavior and solubility, is characterized, and a mechanism of patterning is presented, as well as parameters that should be considered when looking at new potential resist materials.
With the lessons learned from HafSOx, new resist candidates are explored and characterized. Thin films of Bi-Mo and Bi-W are spectroscopically characterized, and their thermal and patterning behavior is also studied, as is the thermal and patterning behavior of thin films of three previously-unsynthesized phosphium hexatungtates. Finally, organotin thin films are characterized, to understand their film behavior, including composition and morphology, as well as their radiation behavior, with and without post-exposure baking.