Poliovirus adsorption by soil particles in seawater Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/wd376073j

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  • This investigation was initiated in an attempt to delineate some factors affecting the adsorption of poliovirus to soil particles in seawater. The results could have significance in the development of assay procedures for viral contaminants in natural waters. A sample of marine sediment, obtained from an estuary near Purdy, Washington, was characterized by X-ray diffraction and shown to consist primarily of 2:1 type mineralogical components. When poliovirus type I was mixed with the marine sediment, or with purified montmorillonite and kaolinite suspensions containing electrolyte, the virus was removed from the supernatant fluid of samples subjected to low-speed centrifugation. Fetal bovine serum, in concentrations of 0.2% to 2%, prevented and reversed adsorption of the virus to the clay fraction of the marine sediment. A serum concentration of 0.02% decreased virus adsorption but 0.002% serum had no effect. Hydrogen ion concentrations, in the range of pH 5 to 9, had no significant effect on the amount of virus adsorbed by marine sediment suspended in seawater. Adsorption of virus by the clay fractions of montmorillonite and kaolinite was more efficient than adsorption by the silt fractions, although significant removal of virus by the larger particles did occur. Adsorption of up to 60% of the virus occurred at clay concentrations as low as 1 mg/liter, while clay concentrations of 50 mg/liter resulted in almost complete removal of the virus from the supernatant fluid. The virus did not adsorb to the clays in a deionized water medium, but when suspended in seawater diluted to salinities as low as 0.1%, or in deionized water containing 10⁻⁵M AlCl₃, adsorption did occur. Clays of the 2:1 type required higher concentrations of electrolyte than did the 1:1 type kaolinite to adsorb virus. Lower concentrations of MgCl₂ than NaCl resulted in adsorption. Attempts to release virus adsorbed to kaolinite, by suspending in a medium of lower electrolyte concentration, were not successful. Limited electron microscope studies did not unequivocally establish the adsorption site of virus to kaolinite crystals, but structural defects of the crystals were observed which may be important in the adsorption phenomenon. The mechanism of adsorption has not been established but a flocculation type is suggested.
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