Nitrogen mineralization from organic amendments during the second year following application Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/ww72bf20k

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  • Estimates of nitrogen (N) available from long-term application of organic amendments are required to balance N inputs with crop N requirements. Two studies were conducted to (1) determine N mineralized from organic amendments (manures and composts) during year 2 after application, and (2) compare plant-available N (PAN) determined via in situ microplot incubations with PAN determined via laboratory incubations under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the first study, soil samples were collected from field plots with and without a history of screened dairy solids application at Oregon State University Vegetable Research Farm near Corvallis, OR. Amounts of N mineralized were estimated using a microplot technique. Microplots, open-ended cyclinders 5 cm i.d. x 15 cm long, were equipped with pillows that contained ion exchange resins at the base. The resins trapped nitrate ions leached from soil in the cylinders. Field microplot estimates of PAN were compared with estimations of PAN from aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations. Screened dairy solids immobilized PAN for approximately 700 degree days (0°C base temperature) after application, and then mineralized N after 700 degree days. In soil that had received screened dairy solids application for 2 to 3 previous years, the increase in net mineralization rate was approximately 0.01 mg N kg⁻¹ dry soil degree day⁻¹. Field microplot and aerobic laboratory estimates of PAN were well correlated. Our study showed that a small fraction of amendment total N was mineralized during years 2, 3 and 4 following amendment application. For example, dairy solids applied from 200 1-2002 contained 1,728 kg N ha⁻¹. Only approximately 56 kg N ha⁻¹, or 3.2% of total cumulative manure-N applied was mineralized in 2003. Other field studies were conducted at the North Willamette Research Extension Center near Aurora, OR and at the Washington State University Puyallup Research Center near Puyallup, WA. At these field sites a variety of organic amendment treatments were applied in 2003. In 2004, our study measured sweet corn crop response parameters including: N recovery from crop N uptake + postharvest soil NO3-N, ear yield, and leaf SPAD meter readings. In the laboratory, soil samples from the field sites were incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to estimate PAN. Year 2 (2004) PAN averaged across all organic amendment treatments and both field locations was 6% of total N applied in year 1 (2003). PAN mineralized in the laboratory aerobic incubation was similar to PAN measured in field microplots and PAN determined by a fertilizer equivalence method at the field sites. This study found similar year 2 PAN for a variety of manure and compost treatments.
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