Origin, incidence, and survival of Salmonella in a rural watershed Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/ww72bf488

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  • A rural watershed containing a protected forest area in the north and a small rural community in the south was monitored for numbers of fecal indicator bacteria as well as the incidence and origin of the enteric pathogen Salmonella. Isolation of Salmonella only occurred once in the protected watershed, while downstream the isolation rate by the elevated-temperature swab technique ranged from 75 to 100%. This increase paralleled increases in fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus counts. A sheep herd grazing adjacent to the creek had a carrier rate for S. arizonae of 38.6%. However, this S. arizonae serotype was only isolated from Oak Creek on one occasion. Salmonella give was the most common serotype found in the creek and in surface runoff ditches in and around the rural community which flow into the creek. Salmonella MPNs downstream from the community ranged from 0.3 to 14 Salmonella/liter. These pathogens showed no injury, and persisted longer in this environment than fecal coliforms during survival experiments using membrane diffusion chambers. The degree of persistence of Salmonella in diffusion chambers was inversely related to temperature. It was concluded from measurements of fecal indicator bacteria numbers and incidence and serotypes of salmonellae isolated that the bacteriological quality of this watershed was significantly affected by non-point runoff from the rural community. Domestic grazing animals in the area contributed only a nominal amount of salmonellae to the watershed.
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