The phytotoxic effects of herbicide and adjuvant application by physiological timing on the woody shrub salal (Gaultheria shallon) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/x346d709c

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  • Salal is plant species that is native to forestland throughout the PNW and northern California that has been identified as a competitor to early crop tree development. This study consisted of a field and a radioisotope laboratory study to test four commonly used herbicides on salal (imazapyr, triclopyr, glyphosate, and picloram) under various phenological states, using three adjuvants, and two herbicide application rates. In the field study, no herbicide or adjuvant was significantly more efficacious than the others tested. Spring treatments were more efficacious than faIl treatments (α ≤ 0.05) and high application rates were more efficacious than low rates (α ≤ 0.05). Only imazapyr exhibited significant (α ≤ 0.05 ) interaction with the treatments factors: adjuvant by season and adjuvant by herbicide rate. The radioisotope study investigated the absorption and translocation patterns ofthe herbicides within salal when applied at different phenological periods, and in formulation with surfactant products. The most efficacious products tested in this study were imazapyr (Chopper) and triclopyr (Triclopyr). These chemicals delivered the highest concentrations, by percent, ofherbicide into leaf structures and within biomass material. The phenological period that treatments were delivered was generaIly a significant factor. Spring (active foliar) treatments aided in leaf absorption and faIl (dormant) treatments incurred greater concentration of ¹⁴C-labeled material into below-ground structures. Surfactants generally aided the absorption ofherbicide. In particular methylated seed oil (MSO) was the most efficacious surfactant among all products tested. It is hypothesized that MSO aided cuticle penetration and leafsurface dispersion of herbicides like imazapyr and triclopyr than would be possible with a water carrier alone.
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