|Abstract or Summary
- The purpose of this study was to: (a) develop a comprehensive plan consisting of a series of logical steps based upon recommendations derived from psychometric, measurement, and research literature and utilize the plan to develop a Likert-type scale to provide valid and reliable measures of the attitude of preservice and inservice elementary school teachers toward computers; (b) administer the developed scale to selected preservice elementary school teachers; and (c) investigate relationships between attitude toward computers and selected teacher variables.
The comprehensive plan consisted of the following steps: (a) develop theory of construction, (b) establish conceptual framework, (c) create item pool, (d) develop trial scale, (e) administer trial scale, (1) conduct item analysis, (g) select items, (h) construct final scale, (i) test for homogeneity, (j) determine reliability, (k) test for unidimensionality, (l) administer final scale, and (m) infer validity. The plan was utilized to develop the Evans Scale for Computer Attitude (ESCA). Validity was inferred utilizing construct-related evidence, which included the manner in which the scale was developed, studies of scale internal structure, prediction and conformation of a general factor, replication of factor structure, relationship of scale scores to nontest variables, relationship of scale scores to similar and dissimilar constructs, comparison of scores with experimental intervention, comparison of known-group responses. An alpha reliability coefficient was found to be 0.96 on two occasions.
It was concluded that: (a) the ESCA provided valid and reliable measures of the computer attitude of preservice and inservice teachers at the elementary school level, (b) the comprehensive plan was effective for the development of a Likert-type scale for measuring the attitude toward computers of preservice and inservice teachers at the elementary school level, (c) preservice teachers in the Masters of Arts in Teaching Program (MAT) in Elementary Education at Oregon State University as a group had positive attitude toward computers, and (c) computer attitude of elementary MAT preservice teachers was significantly related in a positive direction with computer experience and in a negative direction with age.