|Abstract or Summary
- Wine grape pomace (WGP), the byproduct from winemaking, is a good source of polyphenols and dietary fibers, and may be utilized as antioxidant dietary fibers (ADF) for food applications. The objectives of this thesis research were to first determine the phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in red WGP under different drying processes for long-term storage, and to further evaluate the feasibility of using WGP as a functional food ingredient in yogurt and salad dressing for enhancing the nutritional value and improving storability of the products.
Two types of WGP samples, pomace containing seeds and skins (P) and pomace with skins only (S) from Pinot Noir (PN) and Merlot (M) were studied. Samples were subjected to four different drying conditions: 40 °C conventional and vacuum oven, 25 °C ambient air and freeze dry. Total phenolic content (TPC, by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), anthocyanins (ACY, by pH differential method) and flavanols content (TFC, by vanillin assay) of the samples along with their antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenge method, RSA) and antibacterial activity (minimum inhibition concentration, MIC) were determined during 16 weeks of storage under vacuum condition at 15±2 °C. Meanwhile, dietary fiber profile was evaluated by using gravimetric-enzyme method. Results showed that dietary fiber contents of PN-P, PN-S, M-P and M-S were 57-63% d.m. with the majority of insoluble fraction. Freeze dried WGP retained the highest bioactive compounds with TPC 21.19-67.74 mg GAE/g d.m., ACY of 0.35-0.76 mg Mal-3-glu/g d.m., TFC of 30.16-106.61 mg CE/g d.m. and RSA of 22.01-37.46 mg AAE/g d.m., followed with ambient air dried samples. Overall, TPC, TFC and RSA were higher in PN than in M, and higher in pomace than in skins, while reverse results were observed in ACY. All samples lost significant amount of bioactive compounds during storage, in which ambient air and freeze dried samples had TPC reduction of 32-56% and 35-58%, respectively at the end of 16 weeks of storage. RSA in PN-P and M-P remained more than 50 mg TE/g d.m., meaning WGP still met the criteria of ADF definition after 16 weeks of storage. WGP extracts showed higher antibacterial efficiency against L. innocua than that of E. coli with MIC of 2, 7, 3 and 8% against L. innocua, and 3, 6, 4 and 9% against E. coli for PN-P, PN-S, M-P and M-S samples, respectively. This study demonstrated that Pinot Noir and Merlot pomace are good sources of ADF even after 16 weeks of storage at 15 °C and vacuum condition.
Due to the highest antioxidant activity (RSA 37.46 mg AAE/g) and dietary fiber content (61%), PN-P was selected as ADF to be fortified in yogurt and salad dressing. Three types of WGP: whole powder (WP), liquid extract (LE) and freeze dried extract (FDE) with different concentrations were incorporated into yogurt (Y), Italian (I) and Thousand Island (T) salad dressings. TPC, RSA and dietary fiber content, major quality attributes including pH and peroxide value (PV) during the shelf life and consumer acceptance of fortified products were evaluated. The highest ADF were obtained in 3% WP-Y, 1% WP-I and 2% WP-T samples with the dietary fiber contents of 1.98%, 2.12% and 1.83% and RSA of 935.78, 585.60 and 706.67 mg AAE/kg, respectively. WP fortified products had more dietary fiber content than that of LE and FDE fortified ones because of the insoluble fractions. The pH dropped from 4.52 to 4.32 for 3% WP-Y during three weeks of storage at 4 °C, but remained stable in WGP-I and WGP-T samples after four weeks of storage at 4 °C. Adding WGP resulted in 35-65% reduction of PV in all samples compared to the control. In WGP-Y, the viscosity increased, but syneresis and lactic acid percentage were stable during storage. The 1%WP-Y, 0.5%WP-I and 1%WP-T samples were mostly liked by consumers. Study demonstrated that WGP can be used as a functional food ingredient for enhancing nutraceutical content and extending shelf-life of the food products.
This study provided important information about the economically feasible drying methods for retaining the bioactive compounds in WGP during processing and storage and also suggested that WGP can be utilized as antioxidant dietary fiber to be fortified in consumer products to promote nutritional benefit and extend product shelf-life.