Phylloplane microorganisms on the leaf surfaces of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), hop (Humulus lupulus L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Public Deposited

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  • Phyllopane microorganisms on the leaf surfaces of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ), hop (Humulus lupulus L. 'Fuggle-H'), mint (Mentha piperita L. 'Mitcham') and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) has been observed by cultural methods. A leaf impression method was used to examine both actively growing and inactive propagules present on the surfaces of the leaves. A surface sterilization method was also used to detect the presence of any fungi occurring inside the living tissues. All leaf samples were collected from different locations in the Willamette Valley, i. e. , Benton, Lane, Linn, Marion, Polk, Washington and Yamhill Counties. A total of 38 species of microorganisms were found on the surface of healthy leaves of all four host plants. They are divided into five categories which are as follows. First, several microorganisms are very commonly found on the leaf surfaces of all plants and at almost every location; with frequencies of occurrence from 0.01-97 percent. There are 16 species in this first category and examples are Alternaria tenuis Nees ex Per. , Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arn. , Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres. ) de Vries, C. herbarum Pers. ex Fr., Epicoccum purpurascens Ehrenb. ex Schlecht., Sporobolomyces roseus Kluy. & van Niel, and so forth. Second, microorganisms which occurred mainly on bean, mint and tomato leaf surfaces, with the range of frequencies between 0. 01- 29 percent. Thirteen species were isolated, e. g. Acremoniella atra (Corda) Sacc. , Aspergillus niger Tiegh. , Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. , and Phoma sp. etc. Third, microorganisms which grow mainly on tomato leaves with some occurrence on mint or bean leaves. Fourth, microorganisms which grow on tomato and mint leaves only. The frequency of occurrence was between 0.01-29 percent. Fifth, other epiphyllous microorganisms besides fungi, include species of actinomycetes and bacteria that were not identified. These microorganisms, especially the bacteria, abounded on all of the crop leaves and at every location. Numbers of the internal fungi were found in lesser numbers than those on the leaf surfaces. Seven species were isolated from inside of the healthy leaf tissues of the same crops. They were Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Phoma sp. , Stemphylium botryosum Wallr. , Ulocladium atrum Preuss, and Verticilium sp. A. tenuis was the most commonly present at the cut edges of bean leaf squares with average 57 percent. The rest of them were varied, and ranged from 1-17 percent.
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