Rhenium-catalyzed oxygen-atom transfer reactions : mechanism and applications Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/xs55mf27x

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  • In situ reduction of hydrido-tris-(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borato(trioxo) rhenium(V) with triphenylphosphine or triethylphosphite leads to a reactive rhenium(V) species that catalytically deoxygenates epoxides at 75-105°C. The reaction is stereospecific, except for trans- and cis-butene oxide which formed minor amounts of the opposite isomer. A variety of different functional groups were tolerated and even epoxides that reacted slowly could be pushed to greater than 95% conversion given extended time and/or higher temperature. The absence of clustering processes shows how the choice of ligand can have a major influence on the design of the catalytic cycle. The rhenium(V) species formed from reduction of Tp'ReO₃ was identified as Tp'Re(O)(OH)₂. Tp'Re(O)(OH)₂ reacted with ethanol and HCl to form ethoxide and hydroxo chloride complexes, respectively. In addition, Tp'Re(O)(OH)₂ was an excellent catalytic and stoichiometric reagent for the deoxygenation of epoxides and sulfoxides. Loss of water from Tp'Re(O)(OH)₂ to form the catalytically active species Tp'Re02 was shown to be a necessary preequilibrium process. The kinetic behavior of the catalytic system is complex. First-order behavior in [Re][subscript T], zero-order dependence in [PPh₃] and saturation behavior for epoxide were observed. The reversible formation of a coordinated epoxide complex was proposed to explain the saturation behavior. The epoxide complex was shown experimentally and computationally to engage in two separate reactions: ring expansion to form a syn-diolate complex, and direct fragmentation to alkene and trioxide. A steady-state concentration of diolate is eventually reached explaining a "burst" of alkene production prior to generation of a pseudo-zero-order catalytic system. The diolate formed is the syn-isomer, which is the kinetically formed product. Direct epoxide fragmentation is the primary source of alkene. This process was determined to be four times faster than ring expansion for cis-stilbene oxide. The synthesis and characterization of a tethered-epoxide Cp* rhenium trioxide complex has been achieved. Reduction of this complex leads to an unsaturated rhenium(V) species that is immediately complexed by the tethered epoxide. Experimental data and molecular mechanics modeling support intramolecular coordination of the epoxide to the rhenium center. These results confirm that the coordinate epoxide is a viable intermediate in rhenium-catalyzed epoxide deoxygenations.
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