Total and available nutrients in manures for pond aquaculture Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/z316q393b

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  • The total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manures, and the proportion of this amount that becomes available as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus within a month after manures are added to water were examined in the context of fertilization guidelines for pond aquaculture. A literature study was conducted to synthesize information on the dry matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents, and the biochemical oxygen demands of different manures. This information was used to compile a fertilizer database and to examine dry matter-nutrient relationships for different manures. Significantly high correlations between dry matter and total nitrogen, and between dry matter and total phosphorus were observed for poultry manure, and different forms of beef and dairy cattle manures. These relationships can be used to estimate the nutrient contents of manures if the dry matter contents are measured. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus that becomes available as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) over a five week period when poultry, swine and dairy manures are added to water. Mean DIN and DIP concentrations reached highest levels on the 5th day after manure addition for all the manures. These concentrations corresponded to 60.5, 49.5 and 30.1% of the total nitrogen and 78.4, 77.4 and 58% of the total phosphorus supplied by poultry, swine and dairy manures respectively. DIN and DIP concentrations were significantly different among the three manures on all sampling days. Poultry manure supplied the highest amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, followed by swine and dairy manures. Pond fertilization guidelines based on the nitrogen and phosphorus requirements for algae should consider the available portion and not the total nitrogen and phosphorus contents of manures to calculate fertilizer requirements. Another study was conducted to examine the effects of temperature and repeated manure addition on nutrient release patterns from poultry manure. Different temperatures over a three week period did not have a pronounced impact on DIN and DIP levels. Two phases of DIN build-up were observed, whereas DIP levels showed an increasing pattern throughout the temperature experiment. The overall proportion of the total nitrogen and phosphorus supplied by poultry manure that became available as DIN and DIP for all the experimental units considered together amounted to about 64 and 70% respectively, which is consistent with the earlier study. Repeated manure addition resulted in significantly lower DIN and higher DIP concentrations in the interval following the second manure addition compared to the first interval, although nutrient release patterns appeared to be similar.
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