Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

The effects of impact plus resistance training on the musculoskeletal system in premenopausal women

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  • Low bone mineral density (BMD) and poor stability both contribute to increased risk of fractures associated with a fall. The aim of this dissertation was two-fold. The first study, a cross-sectional analysis, sought to determine the anthropometric and/or performance variables that best predicted BMD and postural stability in mature, premenopausal women (N=59). Based on the information gained from the cross-sectional study, a prospective exercise-intervention trial was designed to determine the effects of a 12-month progressive impact (jump) plus lower body resistance training and six-month detraining program on risk factors for hip fracture in the same group of mature premenopausal women (age=30-45 yrs; N=49). Bone mineral density (hip, spine, and whole body), body composition, muscle strength, muscle power and dynamic postural stability were the primary measures evaluated in each study. Results from the cross-sectional study showed that lean mass was an important predictor of BMD, while hip abductor torque and leg power were independent predictors of BMD at clinically relevant fracture sites (hip and spine). Higher fat mass contributed to the majority of the variance in poor stability, indicating that greater fat mass may compromise stability and thus, increase fall risk in heavier individuals. Thus, the exercise program implemented in the intervention trial was designed to maximize gains in BMD, muscle mass, strength and power. Results from the intervention trial showed that 12-months of jump plus resistance training significantly improved hip BMD, body composition, muscle strength, power and stability in mature premenopausal women; however, the positive benefits of impact plus resistance training on the musculoskeletal reversed when training was withdrawn.
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