Vineyard floor vegetation management and mineral nutrient competition in grapes Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/z316q432t

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  • Two experiments were conducted on wine grapes 'Chardonnay' and 'Gewurtztraminer' (Vitis vinifera L.) in 1986 and 1987 to investigate the performance of grapes in competition with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) 'Manhattan 11' sod, the competition between sod and grapes for nutrients and moisture and the effects of nitrogen fertilization and water supply on this competition. Three vineyard floor vegetation management methods, bare floor, mowed sod and unmowed sod, were used to establish three levels of competition between sod and grapes. Nitrogen fertilization at 0, 137 and 274 kg/ha and soil moisture varied with and without irrigation were used to evaluate certain limiting resources. Sods, whether mowed or not, significantly reduced grape growth in both 1986 and 1987 and yield in 1987. Fruit soluble solids were increased by unmowed sod treatment in 1987. The sod did not affect grape leaf P, K, Mg, Cu and Zn concentrations but reduced grape leaf N and Fe in 1986 and S, Ca, B and Mn concentrations in 1987. The sod also decreased total amounts of all nutrients measured in grape leaves. Soil moisture within grape rows was not reduced by sod in mid-July, but soil moisture measured in late July and September between grape rows was reduced by the sod. Nitrogen fertilization enhanced grape growth in 1987 but did not affect grape yield and quality. Nitrogen fertilization increased grape leaf N in 1986 and grape leaf Mg and Mn concentrations in 1987, but decreased grape leaf P, K, S, B in both 1986 and 1987, Ca in 1986 and Cu, Zn concentrations in 1987. Nitrogen fertilization increased total amounts of N, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn but did not affect total amounts of P, K, Cu and B in grape leaves. Vineyard floor vegetation management and nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly when evaluated by measuring grape leaf nitrogen concentration in 1987. Nitrogen fertilization at the rates used can compensate for the reduction of nitrogen in grape leaves caused by the sod. Nitrogen fertilization and water supply enhanced each other in affecting grape growth. Irrigation had no significant effect on grape leaf N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe concentrations but increased K, S, Cu, B and Zn concentrations and total amounts of all nutrients except Fe measured in mowed sod plots receiving no nitrogen fertilizer. Grass growth was not reduced by mowing, consequently mowed and unmowed sod treatments were not significantly different from each other as measured by grape growth, yield and nutrient status. Grass growth was enhanced by nitrogen fertilization.
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