Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

History and distribution of bee diseases in Oregon Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/z603r2574

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  • This thesis is a discussion of the major bee diseases found in Oregon with notes on minor ailments of bees and on diseases not yet present followed by a history of the introduction and spread of the more important diseases, a history of bee legislation in Oregon and a discussion of the distribution and occurrence of American foulbrood and European foulbrood in Oregon as shown by inspection reports of the state apiary inspector for 1935, 1937 and 1938. A bibliography of 39 titles is included. Chapter I. American foulbrood is the most serious disease of bees. It is an infectious disease of the later larval stages and pupal stage caused by Bacillus larvae. The disease is practically always fatal to the colonies contracting it, no race of bees is resistant to it, it is spread largely by beekeepers in manipulating their bees, can be spread in package bees and in commercial honey although neither are important factors and it is difficult to control except by burning diseased colonies as soon as they are found. Some work is being done on breeding resistant stock and this work has some prospect of being successful since a method of controlling the mating of the queen has been discovered. Chapter II. European foulbrood is an infectious disease of bees attacking the brood of bees in the earlier larval stages while the sugar content of the digestive tract is still relatively high. It is caused by Bacillus alvei, a germ that assumes quite variable morphological forms during its development. Italian, Caucasian and Carniolan bees are usually resistant taken as colonies and not as individuals. The disease may be spread in honey and pollen and on equipment. It may be controlled by strengthening infected colonies and requeening with queens of resistant stock. Chapter III. Sac brood is an infectious disease caused by a filterable virus which does not live long in honey, pollen nor in dead larvae. Its principal damage is in weakening colonies and its seriousness is not usually realized because most of the dead larvae are removed by the bees. Nosema-disease and paralysis are diseases of adult bees, both of them are present in Oregon but are of little importance. Dissentery of bees in winter and early spring is due to stores with too high a water content. Parafoulbrood is not present in Oregon. Isle of Wight disease, caused by a mite in the trachea, is not present in North America. Septicemia and fungus diseases of bees are of little importance. Chapter IV. Instructions are given for methods of diagnosing the common bee diseases in the apiary with a chart listing symptoms of the common diseases. Chapter V. Bee diseases have been known since before the Christian era but it was not until 1903 that the different types of brood diseases were separated and their causative organisms isolated. It is not known just when or how American foulbrood was brought to Oregon but it was present in Malheur county in 1907 and was found in nearly all parts of the state by 1920. It is now present in every county in the state. There was a virulent type of European foulbrood in Clatsop county in 1908 and the disease was common in western Oregon by 1920. At present it is decreasing in importance and is seldom found in central and eastern Oregon. Sac brood is found all over the state but is generally confused with poisoning. Spray poisoning is serious only in Jackson, Hood River and Wasco counties. The first inspection law was passed in 1905, the next in 1917, another in 1920 and the present law in 1933. The first three were ineffective. Chapter VI. The present distribution of bee diseases is given by counties for 1935, 1937 and 1938 as shown by inspection records.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi using ScandAll PRO 1.8.1 on a Fi-6770A in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2014-10-13T22:33:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 BlackABurr1939.pdf: 19774503 bytes, checksum: 6f09b62929363ada4ab81055f7dc78c8 (MD5) Previous issue date: 1939-05-09
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