- The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship
between kindergarten experience and fine-muscle eye-hand coordination
abilities of first grade children.
The subjects were 181 first graders in the public schools of
Albany, Corvallis, and Salem, Oregon. The mean age of the sample
was 76.69 months with a standard deviation of 3.75 months. The
kindergarten group attended schools in Corvallis, Oregon, and
numbered 92. The non-kindergarten group attended schools in Albany
and Salem, Oregon. They numbered 89.
Socio-economic status was determined by the Hollingshead Two-
Factor Index of Social Position. Ninety percent of the sample were
classified as lower middle class (Class IV), with the other ten percent
in the lower limits of the middle class (Class III).
Fine-muscle eye-hand coordination was considered in its
broadest sense and was measured by The Moore Eye-Hand Coordination
Test, a speed and accuracy test using marbles; and The Frostig
Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Test I, Eye-Motor
Coordination, a measure of eye-hand coordination involving drawing.
The Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test was used to measure
mental age, and The Metropolitan Readiness Test was used to estimate
school readiness. All tests were administered during the months of
September and October.
Two null hypotheses were tested: Hypothesis I: Comparison of
scores for the kindergarten and non-kindergarten groups will yield no
significant differences in fine-muscle eye-hand coordination abilities;
Hypothesis II: Prediction of school readiness will not be improved by
the addition of the coefficients of the selected variables used in this
study: experience, sex, age, handedness, height, weight, glasses,
mental age, and the fine-muscle eye-hand coordination measures.
Results of the t-tests applied to the first hypothesis indicated
that there were significant differences beyond the .025 level in favor
of females and those children who had had kindergarten experience
when measured by the Moore Eye-Hand Coordination Test. A significant
t-value beyond the .01 level was found in favor of the kindergarten
group when measured by the Frostig Test.
It was concluded that kindergarten experience did improve fine-muscle
eye-hand coordination, thus the null hypothesis was rejected.
Hypothesis II was tested by the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis program. Four variables; experience, mental
age, Frostig Test, and the Moore Test generated significant F-values.
These variables were the only variables that contributed to R².
An analysis of variance on the four variables which were
included in the final regression model had an F-value of 42.23.
Since this exceeds the F-distribution by 12 times, the fitted equation
can be rated a satisfactory prediction tool. The model was tested for
linearity, allowing the rejection of the assumption that a linear
relationship between the y and x's might not exist,
A coefficient of determination value of .49 was considered
adequate in light of the tests performed. Consequently the null
hypothesis was rejected, and it was concluded that we may predict
school readiness with some confidence.