- The purpose of this study was to identify the values
and attitudes of a group of freshman female students and
their parents and to determine if value and attitude differences
existed between these two groups. Therefore, of
equal importance in the study was the quantification of
The subjects were 161 freshman females and their parents
(160 mothers and 153 fathers). The sample was representative
of the O.S.U. freshman female population. The
Rokeach Value Survey, Form D and the University-Student
Relationships Attitude Survey were the instruments utilized
to measure values and attitudes. Demographic data were
obtained by means of a brief check list.
Twenty-four null hypotheses concerning differences in
median rankings of terminal values (end-states of existence)
and instrumental values (preferred modes of conduct) were
tested using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance,
a non-parametric two-way analysis of variance, and a t-test. It was hypothesized that value and attitude differences existed
between the group of students and the group of parents
and that value and attitude differences existed between
student subgroups defined on the basis of birth order,
religion, parents' level of education, family socio-economic
level, and home town size.
The results of the study showed:
1. Students valued the terminal value a world at
peace as the most important end-state of existence
closely followed by the value freedom, whereas
parents valued family security as the most important
end-state of existence followed by wisdom.
2. Those terminal values that were least desirable
for the student group were national security and
social recognition, whereas parents ranked the
values social recognition and pleasure last.
3. Both students and parents valued the instrumental
value honest as the most important preferred mode
4. The least important instrumental values for both
groups were imaginative and obedient.
5. Significant differences in median rankings were
found on 11 of the 18 terminal values and nine of
the 18 instrumental values in the daughter-mother
analysis, on 12 of the 18 terminal values and 12
of the 18 instrumental values in the daughter-father analysis, and on 12 of the 18 terminal values and 13 of the 18 instrumental values
in the student group and total parent group
6. From the subgroup analyses, it was found that the
variables of birth order and religious affiliation
influenced the students' ordering of terminal values.
Further, the interaction effect of the variables
birth order and parents' level of education
influenced the importance that the students assigned
to instrumental values.
7. Both the group of students and the group of parents
were in agreement on the attitude items, and
each exhibited "liberal" or non-restrictive attitudes
concerning University-student relationships.
8. The variables of birth order, religious affiliation,
and family socio-economic level influenced
student responses on attitude items concerning
The results showed that although significant differences
in rankings of values occurred between the group of
students and the group of parents, the relative positions
of the top nine values in the value hierarchy were highly
similar for both groups. Neither students nor parents perceived
great value differences between the two groups, and
few believed that a generation gap existed. Further, no differences were found on the attitude statements concerning
University-student relationships, as both groups exhibited "liberal," non-restrictive attitudes. Thus, the
major conclusion of the study was that both the students
and the parents possessed similar value systems and that
intergenerational differences between the student group and
the parent group were relatively small.
Explanations concerning the results of the study are
offered, and further research recommendations are proposed.