Malate and tartrate in Oregon grapes Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/zs25xc435

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  • In western Oregon the titratable acidity of grapes at harvest may in some seasons be higher than desirable for making quality wine, due to the retention of malic acid. The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the effects of a vineyard cultural practice, cluster exposure at veraison by basal leaf removal, as a means of reducing the malate content and titratable acidity of grapes, and 2) to develop a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test procedure by which smaller wineries and vineyards could evaluate the effects of their own field experiments on the malate and tartrate content of their grapes. 1. At veraison, clusters of Chardonnay grapes were a) exposed to the sun by removal of all leaves opposite or below the clusters, b) treated as in a) but shaded with shadecloth, c) exposed to the sun by tying back leaves opposite or below the clusters, or d) left untreated as a control. Clusters of White Riesling were exposed to the sun by similar leaf removal a) 10 days before veraison, b) 10 days after veraison, or c) untreated. Clusters of Pinot Noir were exposed a) at veraison, b) 2 weeks after veraison, or c) untreated. Exposed clusters received 3 to 3.5 times more light than shaded clusters and up to 32% more heat, with temperature differences between exposed and shaded treatments being most pronounced during cool, sunny weather. None of the treatments had any effect on juice or berry malate, tartrate, or potassium content; however, exposed clusters of Pinot Noir had a lower pH (.03) and higher titratable acidity (.06%) than the control at harvest. Cluster exposure of Chardonnay increased sunburning of grapes, and cluster exposure of Pinot Noir at veraison caused a 1% reduction in juice soluble solids concentration at harvest. The detrimental effects of cluster exposure by basal leaf removal at veraison, as well as the lack of any major effect on the acid content of the berries, suggest that the practice has no value for acid reduction during a warm, dry maturation season in western Oregon. 2. A rapid, simple procedure for the estimation of the malate and tartrate content of grape juice is described. The procedure, which requires only a pH meter for instrumentation, does not directly measure malate and tartrate but instead measures their buffering effect. Samples are titrated between pH 2.70-3.00 and pH 4.50-4.80 and the titrant volumes required are compared to two sets of empirically derived standard curves. The malate and tartrate composition of the sample may be determined by a graphical or algebraic method. The use of the estimation method, its advantages, and its limitations are illustrated with different viticultural trials. The estimation error (estimated value - measured value) was influenced by many factors including maturity, season, vineyard location, and cultivar. Standard deviations of the estimation error for malate and tartrate in mature grapes were equal to 9% and 15%, respectively, of the mean malate and tartrate concentrations in pooled Pinot Noir and Chardonnay samples from different vineyards and years. The estimation error is probably due to interference from other buffers present in juice. Although not as accurate as existing analytical methods, the estimation method appears potentially useful for determining relative effects of treatments in vineyard trials where analytical equipment is unavailable or for monitoring malate decline during maturation of grapes.
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  • description.provenance : Submitted by Erin Clark (ecscannerosu@gmail.com) on 2012-01-06T22:21:47Z No. of bitstreams: 1 NORTONKERRY1987.pdf: 901272 bytes, checksum: 375a844d5a99cd0638d93e05360e22fb (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-06T23:07:53Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 NORTONKERRY1987.pdf: 901272 bytes, checksum: 375a844d5a99cd0638d93e05360e22fb (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-26T17:16:35Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 NORTONKERRY1987.pdf: 901272 bytes, checksum: 375a844d5a99cd0638d93e05360e22fb (MD5)

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