A comparison of the effectiveness of teaching general hygiene by closed-circuit television and by lecture procedures Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/zw12z764z

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  • The central purpose of this comparison was to determine the congruence or difference between two teaching techniques, the television method and the conventional lecture method as used in teaching General Hygiene on the freshman college level at Oregon State University. Sub-problems associated with this study were, (a) the development of a college health knowledge test, (b) establishment of the validity and reliability of this measuring instrument, (c) application and analysis of the college health knowledge test in reference to the stated comparison. If a teaching technique deserves to be called effective, it must produce a significant change in the student. In this case the change should take the form of an increase in knowledge which would be indicated by scores on an examination covering the contents of a general hygiene course. Therefore, it was considered of paramount necessity that a valid measuring instrument be designed. The college health knowledge test was developed from 390 multiple-choice items selected and constructed to meet accepted criteria. The scope and content of the area of General Hygiene was determined in this study in three means: (a) from the statements of nationally recognized organizations and authorities, (b) by analysis of current textbooks on the subject, (c) by analysis of published tests. Standardization was carried out using 2,000 students with particular attention being given to the recommendations of health educators, an analysis of authoritative statements, and the preparation and application of three balanced trial forms. Complete item and distractor analysis and difficulty level were determined. A final form of 100 multiple-choice items in eleven topic areas was constructed. The mean coefficient of reliability for the test is .89. On test validity, there is a moderately strong correlation of .80 between scores made on the test and the final grades given by instructors at the close of the hygiene course. This test provides a valid, reliable, and comprehensive measure of achievement and diagnosis of personal health knowledge. It is designed chiefly for college freshmen students who have taken a full term course in personal hygiene. With the construction of a valid health knowledge test it was possible to compare the effectiveness of teaching by television and by conventional lecture procedures. A random sample of 1015 college freshmen students was divided into four experimental groups: (a) Closed-Circuit Television Group, (b) Open-Circuit Television Group, (c) Control Group, (d) Conventional Group. A pre-test and post-test was administered to these groups. Using the test scores obtained and adjusting them with scores obtained for the College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Test to control statistically the variable of academic potential, or intelligence, an analysis of co-variance was computed and the adjusted means were tested with the 'F' test or 't' test whichever was more appropriate. The following conclusions were drawn from the data presented in this study. 1. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in the amount of health knowledge possessed by students as entering freshmen at Oregon State University. The amount of health knowledge was significant at the five percent level. 2. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in the increase of health knowledge as it relates to the eleven topic areas in General Hygiene at the one percent level. 3. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in the effectiveness of the four different teaching methods at the one percent level. 4. Much evidence was obtained indicating the ability of each of the different teaching techniques as they related to challenging the different academic potentials of the students.
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