|Abstract or Summary
- The central purpose of this comparison was to determine the
congruence or difference between two teaching techniques, the television
method and the conventional lecture method as used in teaching
General Hygiene on the freshman college level at Oregon State University.
Sub-problems associated with this study were, (a) the development
of a college health knowledge test, (b) establishment of the
validity and reliability of this measuring instrument, (c) application
and analysis of the college health knowledge test in reference to the
If a teaching technique deserves to be called effective, it must
produce a significant change in the student. In this case the change
should take the form of an increase in knowledge which would be indicated
by scores on an examination covering the contents of a general
hygiene course. Therefore, it was considered of paramount necessity
that a valid measuring instrument be designed. The college health
knowledge test was developed from 390 multiple-choice items selected
and constructed to meet accepted criteria. The scope and content of
the area of General Hygiene was determined in this study in three
means: (a) from the statements of nationally recognized organizations
and authorities, (b) by analysis of current textbooks on the subject,
(c) by analysis of published tests. Standardization was carried out
using 2,000 students with particular attention being given to the recommendations
of health educators, an analysis of authoritative statements,
and the preparation and application of three balanced trial
forms. Complete item and distractor analysis and difficulty level
A final form of 100 multiple-choice items in eleven topic areas
was constructed. The mean coefficient of reliability for the test is .89.
On test validity, there is a moderately strong correlation of .80 between
scores made on the test and the final grades given by instructors
at the close of the hygiene course. This test provides a valid, reliable,
and comprehensive measure of achievement and diagnosis of
personal health knowledge. It is designed chiefly for college freshmen
students who have taken a full term course in personal hygiene.
With the construction of a valid health knowledge test it was
possible to compare the effectiveness of teaching by television and by conventional lecture procedures. A random sample of 1015 college
freshmen students was divided into four experimental groups: (a)
Closed-Circuit Television Group, (b) Open-Circuit Television Group,
(c) Control Group, (d) Conventional Group. A pre-test and post-test
was administered to these groups. Using the test scores obtained and
adjusting them with scores obtained for the College Entrance Examination
Board Scholastic Aptitude Test to control statistically the variable
of academic potential, or intelligence, an analysis of co-variance
was computed and the adjusted means were tested with the 'F' test
or 't' test whichever was more appropriate.
The following conclusions were drawn from the data presented
in this study.
1. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in
the amount of health knowledge possessed by students as
entering freshmen at Oregon State University. The amount
of health knowledge was significant at the five percent level.
2. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in
the increase of health knowledge as it relates to the eleven
topic areas in General Hygiene at the one percent level.
3. Evidence was obtained indicating a significant difference in
the effectiveness of the four different teaching methods at
the one percent level.
4. Much evidence was obtained indicating the ability of each of
the different teaching techniques as they related to challenging
the different academic potentials of the students.