Simplified WECC modeling for frequency response, wind integration, and energy storage Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/zw12z7703

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  • The primary objective of a grid is to maintain a balance between generation and load. If these quantities are not in balance with each other, severe damages such as voltage fluctuations, low power quality, power outages or even cascaded blackouts may occur. Hence one of the primary factors that holds the grid together and makes it operative is the frequency. Thus maintaining the frequency within certain limits is the basic operational requirement. Lately, the power system's dependency on wind power has increased, suggesting that wind power generation is expected to contribute its services which are normally delivered by conventional power plants. However a system that has high wind penetration results in reduced system inertia due to the wind turbine's lack of droop characteristics that may lead to frequency control issues. Thus a backup system is needed such as an energy storage system that can be controlled to supply energy when demand is high i.e., during demand response operations, energy can be stored by increasing load and temperature, and energy can be effectively returned by reducing load and temperature. This thesis presents the modelling of such an energy storage system which consists of several generators responding at different time scales and several water heaters that can be controlled based on the frequency deviation from its nominal value. The ultimate goal of this paper is to perform transient analysis on a simplified Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system for frequency response, wind integration and energy storage using primary frequency control and secondary frequency control. Simulation results will showcase the frequency excursions of the WECC system with and without energy storage under normal loss of generation event and under wind penetration.
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