- The intent of this report is to provide a brief description of water quality issues in Nicaragua, Uganda and Bangladesh, and the technologies available to address these issues. The water quality parameters considered include: bacterial contamination, heavy metals and arsenic, pesticides and industrious chemicals, turbidity, radiological characteristics, and taste and odor. Next, a handful of commonly used water treatment technologies in developing communities were evaluated based on their water treatment performance and appropriateness in developing communities. These technologies and methods include: boiling, chlorination, the LifeStraw by Vestergaard, the SolarBag by Puralytics, and the BioSand Filter by David Manz.
A BioSand Filter, based on the Manz design, was fabricated in a lab at Oregon State University and testing procedures were created for comparing the original design to a novel design. The intent of the novel design is to allow for a more efficient and thorough filter cleaning process. While the tests do not initially validate the novel design, continued experimental tests could confirm the design by suggesting an optimal setup.
Additionally, field research in Eastern Uganda is presented. A qualitative study was conducted regarding drinking water treatment and usage in the region. The ultimate goal was to understand the water treatment needs, particularly of those residing in rural communities. This understanding was then used in the development of a business model for the construction, distribution, and maintenance of BioSand Filters in the region. Interviews with local families, government organizations, engineers, NGO employees, and more contributed to the observations.
Key Words: water treatment technologies, global development, BioSand Filter, Uganda