- This review aimed to identify the factors that influence human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization initiation and completion among adolescents and young adults. A review of literature pertaining to HPV vaccination was performed that used data published after 2012. It was found that the average HPV vaccination rate in the United States in 2017 was 49%. Barriers to obtaining and completing HPV immunization were determined to include physician recommendations, missed opportunities, knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, perceived risk, place of residence (urban versus rural), and cost. This paper also evaluated two evidence-based programs designed to increase HPV vaccination rates, one targeting adolescents and another targeting young adults. The goal of this research was to elucidate factors that impact an individual’s human papillomavirus immunization status and to suggest recommendations to healthcare providers and public health officials that may aid in increasing human papillomavirus immunization rates.