Aerial photographic tracing of pulp mill effluent in marine waters Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/technical_reports/dr26xz07b

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  • Aerial photography taken of waste plumes from Kraft pulp mill ocean outfalls was shown to be an effective tool in the study of waste disposal sites. This technique is not limited by sea conditions and permits monitoring and evaluation of outfall sites throughout the year. Photography taken at one instant provides comprehensive information throughout the waste field. Manpower requirements and costs for this method are considerably less than for conventional boat sampling surveys. Field studies were conducted on the waste plumes from Kraft pulp mill ocean outfalls at Newport and Gardiner, Oregon and Samoa, California. Waste concentrations were measured by conventional boat sampling techniques while aerial photography was taken of the outfall area from altitudes ranging from 3,000 to 11,000 ft. Computerized procedures were used to compute water currents, waste concentrations, toxicity zones and diffusion coefficients from the photography. The highest concentration measured directly over the outfalls was 2.3 percent waste by volume and the maximum area of influence with concentrations greater than 0.2 percent waste was 155 acres. The maximum concentration determined over the outfall for each field study was generally less than that shown to have a detrimental effect on young salmon for a 14-day exposure. Surface water current was found to be the dominant factor in the resulting plume pattern. During periods of low current velocities in the receiving water, the hydraulic head created by the effluent source was a significant factor in the resulting plume shape. The steady state form of the Fickian diffusion equation and unidirectional transport velocity was not applicable to the majority of the observations. Temperature was found not to be an effective tracer for tracking the plume or for estimating waste concentrations since the resulting plume temperature may be greater than, less than or equal to the surrounding ocean temperature.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-02-28T17:36:41Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 AerialPhotographicTracingPulp.pdf: 3894361 bytes, checksum: ab129a721dd05ca4c26b58426d7825c8 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-02-28T17:36:41Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 AerialPhotographicTracingPulp.pdf: 3894361 bytes, checksum: ab129a721dd05ca4c26b58426d7825c8 (MD5) Previous issue date: 1970
  • description.provenance : Rejected by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu), reason: Grayscale. on 2012-02-27T23:21:52Z (GMT)
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Susan Gilmont (susan.gilmont@orst.edu) on 2012-02-28T17:06:19Z No. of bitstreams: 1 AerialPhotographicTracingPulp.pdf: 3894361 bytes, checksum: ab129a721dd05ca4c26b58426d7825c8 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Susan Gilmont (susan.gilmont@orst.edu) on 2012-02-13T19:25:07Z No. of bitstreams: 1 AerialPhotographicTracingPulp.pdf: 4860217 bytes, checksum: 1937dc5ed5d7f79079c324dd9540e6ce (MD5)

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