- In the twenty-first century, energy in all its manifestations became the issue of the day. As new insights about Earth’s geo-history emerged, so did worldwide concern about human consumption of fossil energy as a force in global climate change. These insights and concerns added another dimension to anthropological examinations of how energy and energetics have affected human biological evolution and how they impact cultural developments. It is time to consider how our discipline can integrate these understandings into our anthropological worldview and practice. This paper reviews these topics and argues for an active anthropological role in shaping public perspectives on the history of Homo sapiens and the responsibilities of our species in the years ahead.