Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is one of the world's most important and valuable timber trees. Its natural distribution in North America resembles an inverted V with uneven sides. From the apex in British Columbia, the western half extends along the Pacific mountain ranges into California for about 2,200 km (1,400 miles). The eastern half stretches along the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the United States into the mountains of central Mexico over a distance of about 4,500 km (2,800 miles). Douglas-fir was introduced into the British Isles 35 years after its discovery by Archibald Menzies on Vancouver Island in 1792. Since then, the cultivation of this species has spread to many parts of Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and some of the temperate regions of South America. At the beginning of the present century, foresters became aware that the tremendous divergence of climate, topography, soils, and other environmental conditions throughout the range of Douglas-fir was accompanied by an equally great genetic diversity within this species. The first provenance studies of Douglas-fir date back to that period, and additional provenance tests were initiated in subsequent decades. Interest in provenance studies for better understanding of variation in growth and development of the species, and their implications for improvement of future crops of trees, has continued to this day. The international Douglas-fir study that was begun in 1966-67 with the cooperation of many nations, and the IUFRO meeting in 1973 dealing with the various aspects of Douglas-fir provenance research are indicative of the efforts in this field. Results of provenance studies are contained in many publications, dissertations, and unpublished reports. Because many of these papers are obscure or not easily accessible, we have prepared this bibliography for all those interested in Douglas-fir provenance research. However hard we have tried to include all relevant publications, some worthwhile papers may have been omitted. We hope that our continuing search for additional materials, in conjunction with comments and suggestions from readers of this bibliography, will rectify the situation.
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