A comparison of the effectiveness between traditional and video modeling strategies on motor skill assessments Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/undergraduate_thesis_or_projects/6m311q67s

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  • INTRODUCTION: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been shown to possess relative strengths in processing visual stimuli as opposed to verbal stimuli (Tissot & Evans, 2003). Therefore, instructional strategies that use visual means and presentations are recommended over the traditional (verbal) instruction. The effectiveness of video modeling has been demonstrated with social skills, verbal and communication skills, and play skills among children with ASD (Ayres & Langone, 2005; Bellini & Akullian, 2007) but has been used minimally in physical activity and motor skill research. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video modeling strategies compared to traditional instructions on motor skill performance among children with ASD. METHODS: Participants were both children with and without ASD ranging in age from 3 to 16. Nineteen children participated in this study. Ten participants had ASD (ages 11-16) and nine participants were without disabilities (ages 3-10). The participants were recruited from the local community in the Pacific Northwest in the United States. Diagnosis of ASD was confirmed through parental report. Each participant completed two trials, approximately 7 days apart, of the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition (TGMD-3). The TGMD-3 is a standardized motor skill assessment which evaluates 13 different locomotor and ball skills, including running, horizontal jump, one-hand stationary dribble, and overhand throw. One of the trials was administered through video modeling conditions in which the participant watched the desired tasks on an iPad. The other trial was administered through traditional instructions which required direct verbal instruction and live demonstration from the study investigator. The trial conditions were presented to the participants in a counterbalanced order. Each performance was videotaped and then coded by research assistants. In order to eliminate bias, the research assistants were blind to the conditions of performance. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 (group by condition) repeated-measures ANOVA. The results of the study showed that, Video Modeling procedures are longer in duration than the traditional condition for both groups. Though not statistically significant, raw data shows there is an increase in scores from live to video modeling for children with ASD, and a decrease in scores from live to video modeling for children without disabilities. Reasoning for insignificant outcomes may have been due to: small sample size, if the children were attending to the videos on the iPad, if the skills were age-appropriate, and importance of blind data coding and lack of bias. Further research is needed to provide additional insight and reasoning for or against video modeling in motor assessment settings for children with ASD.
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