Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. There are an estimated 115,024 incident cases so far in 2017. Risk factors for prostate cancer include age, black race, and family history of prostate cancer. In addition, healthful diet and lifestyle may affect risk of prostate cancer. As part of a healthful diet, omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in association with prostate cancer due to their anti-inflammatory effects. The various forms of omega-3 fatty acids play a role in human health, including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of nine original studies on the association between omega-3 fatty acids, as self-reported dietary intake or measured in blood samples, and prostate cancer risk. Based on these original studies, we generated summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the total and individual types of omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer risk. We found no statistically significant association between the total omega-3 fatty acids from both dietary intake and blood levels and total prostate cancer (SSRE=1.03, 95% CI=0.93-1.13, comparing the highest category with the lowest). No association between total omega-3 fatty acids and total prostate cancer was observed for the dietary intake studies (SSRE=0.96, 95% CI=0.87-1.05) or for the biomarker studies (SRRE=1.05, 95% CI= 0.90-1.21). By individual fatty acids, none of the fatty acids, either as dietary intake or blood level, there were no statistically significant associations with prostate cancer risk. In summary, the results from this meta-analysis do not support the association between omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer.
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