A survey of three key species of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Monarthrum scutellare, Xyleborus dispar, Xyleborinus saxesenii) in Oregon's Willamette Valley nursery industry
The nursery industry plays a critical role in Oregon's economy. An increase in wood-boring insect, or borer, activity has impacted the industry. The goal of this research is to determine key borer species in the nursery industry, flight times so targeted spray schedules can be established, and assess grower knowledge of borer issues and their management. Ambrosia beetles were found to be important with focus on three key species: Monarthrum scutellare (LeConte), Xyleborus dispar (F.), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg). Flight times were monitored from 7 May 2003 to 3 September 2003 and 18 February 2004 to 1 September 2004, using Lindgren funnel traps. The greatest number of ambrosia beetles for all species peaked in April, with a later peak in June for X saxesenii. The greatest number of specimens collected was X saxesenii. All species combined, a greater number of ambrosia beetles were trapped in 2003 than in 2004. A survey ofgrowers in the Willamette Valley indicates that retail container operations spend more money on control than wholesale field growers. The average loss of trees was greater in 2003 than in 2004. Both retail and wholesale growers feel that ambrosia beetles are of equal importance. Well managed crops, with respect to irrigation and soil compaction, are the best defense against ambrosia beetles.
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