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Evapotranspiration: a process driving mass transport and energy exchange in the soil-plant-atmosphere-climate system

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dc.creator Katul, Gabriel G.
dc.creator Oren, Ram
dc.creator Manzoni, Stefano
dc.creator Higgins, Chad
dc.creator Parlange, Marc B.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-10-18T00:36:33Z
dc.date.available 2013-10-15T22:18:26Z
dc.date.issued 2012-07-20
dc.identifier.citation Katul, G. G., R. Oren, S. Manzoni, C. Higgins, and M. B. Parlange (2012), Evapotranspiration: A process driving mass transport and energy exchange in the soil-plant-atmosphere-climate system, Reviews of Geophysics, 50, RG3002, doi:10.1029/2011RG000366. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/34534
dc.description This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by American Geophysical Union and can be found at: http://www.agu.org/journals/rg/. en_US
dc.description.abstract The role of evapotranspiration (ET) in the global, continental, regional, and local water cycles is reviewed. Elevated atmospheric CO₂, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit (D), turbulent transport, radiative transfer, and reduced soil moisture all impact biotic and abiotic processes controlling ET that must be extrapolated to large scales. Suggesting a blueprint to achieve this link is the main compass of this review. Leaf-scale transpiration (f[subscript e]) as governed by the plant biochemical demand for CO₂ is first considered. When this biochemical demand is combined with mass transfer formulations, the problem remains mathematically intractable, requiring additional assumptions. A mathematical “closure” that assumes stomatal aperture is autonomously regulated so as to maximize the leaf carbon gain while minimizing water loss is proposed, which leads to analytical expressions for leaf-scale transpiration. This formulation predicts well the effects of elevated atmospheric CO₂ and increases in D on f[subscript e]. The case of soil moisture stress is then considered using extensive gas exchange measurements collected in drought studies. Upscaling the f[subscript e] to the canopy is then discussed at multiple time scales. The impact of limited soil water availability within the rooting zone on the upscaled ET as well as some plant strategies to cope with prolonged soil moisture stress are briefly presented. Moving further up in direction and scale, the soil-plant system is then embedded within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the influence of soil moisture on rainfall is outlined. The review concludes by discussing outstanding challenges and how to tackle them by means of novel theoretical, numerical, and experimental approaches. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Support from the National Science Foundation (NSF EAR-1013339, NSF CBET-1033467, and NSF-AGS-110227), the United States Department of Agriculture (2011-67003-30222), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program (FACE and NICCR grants: DE-FG02-95ER62083, DE-FC02-06ER64156) and through the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES) program (DE-SC0006967) are acknowledged. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Geophysical Union en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Reviews of Geophysics en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 50 no.RG3002 en_US
dc.title Evapotranspiration: a process driving mass transport and energy exchange in the soil-plant-atmosphere-climate system en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1029/2011RG000366
dc.description.embargopolicy Repository Administrators en


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