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Seed-coat anatomy and proanthocyanidins contribute to the dormancy of Rubus seed

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dc.creator Wada, Sugae
dc.creator Kennedy, James A.
dc.creator Reed, Barbara M.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-01T16:44:42Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-01T16:44:42Z
dc.date.issued 2011-10-31
dc.identifier.citation Wada, S., Kennedy, J., & Reed, B. (2011). Seed-coat anatomy and proanthocyanidins contribute to the dormancy of rubus seed. Scientia Horticulturae, 130(4), 762-768. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.08.034 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/34724
dc.description This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by Elsevier and can be found at: www.elsevier.com/. en_US
dc.description.abstract Rubus seed has a deep double dormancy that restricts germination due to seed coat structure and chemical composition. Improved germination of diverse Rubus species required for breeding improved blackberry and raspberry cultivars is partly dependent on the seed coat structure. This study evaluated the seed coat structure of three species with thin (R. hoffmeisterianus Kunth & C. D. Bouche). medium (R. occidentalis L) and thick (R. caesius L) seed coats. The three species exhibited distinctive seed-coat cell composition. The very thin testa (0.086 mm) of R. hoffmeisterianus had little exotesta (surface) reticulation; with the meso- and endotesta composed of sclereids of homogenous shape and size. R. occidentalis had a thick testa (0.175 mm) and a highly reticulate exotesta; the meso- and endotesta were composed of several diverse types of sclereids. R. caesius had the thickest seed coat (0.185 mm) but only moderate exotesta reticulation; the meso- and endotesta were composed of large, irregular, loosely arranged sclereids. R. occidentalis, a medium size seed, was the most heavily lignified with seed-coat thickness similar to R. caesius, the largest seed. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from dry seed of six Rubus species were extracted and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. R. hoffmeisterianus. a thin only slightly hard seed, had half the PA (0.45 mu g/seed) of R. occidentalis with a thick, extremely-hard seed coat and diverse sclereids (1.07 mu g/seed). PA content and sclereid composition both appear contribute to seed coat hardness and resulting seed dormancy. The effectiveness of sulfuric acid for Rubus seed scarification is likely due to degradation of PAs in the testa. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This project was funded by USDA-ARS CRIS project 5358-21000 038-00D. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Scientia Horticulturae en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 130 no. 4 en_US
dc.subject Germination en_US
dc.subject Proanthocyanidin en_US
dc.subject Rubus en_US
dc.subject Scarification en_US
dc.subject Sclereid en_US
dc.subject Testa en_US
dc.title Seed-coat anatomy and proanthocyanidins contribute to the dormancy of Rubus seed en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.08.034

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