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Standardizing germination protocols for diverse raspberry and blackberry species

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dc.creator Wada, Sugae
dc.creator Reed, Barbara M.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-01T17:49:46Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-01T17:49:46Z
dc.date.issued 2011-12-05
dc.identifier.citation Wada, S., & Reed, B. (2011). Standardizing germination protocols for diverse raspberry and blackberry species. Scientia Horticulturae, 132, 42-49. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.10.002 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/34735
dc.description This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by Elsevier and can be found at: www.elsevier.com/. en_US
dc.description.abstract Most blackberry and raspberry (Rubus) seed exhibit delayed or poor germination because of a deep double dormancy. The objective of this study was to improve seed scarification and germination protocols for the diverse Rubus species in two subgenera often used for breeding improved cultivars. We also defined the germination potential of freshly collected seed and the seed characteristics of 17 Rubus species in three subgenera. Only four 01 17 species had >= 50% germination of immediately-germinated, non-scarified seed, indicating primary seed dormancy. Seed-coat thickness was better correlated with seed size (R = 0.82) than was hardness (R = 0.71). Dry seed of three species each in the subg. ldaeobatus and Rubus were scarified with concentrated sulfuric acid (98% H2SO4) or sodium hypochlorite (14% NaOCl) followed by germination treatments of deionized water (DI), smoke gas solution, gibberellic acid (2.03 mg/L GA(3)) with potassium nitrate (34 mg/L KNO3) or GA3 alone. Germination after H2SO4 scarification was significantly better than NaOCl for four of the six species despite equal reduction in the seed coat by the scarification treatments. H2SO4-scarified seed had maximum germination in 6-8 months compared to 12 months for NaOCl-scarified seed. Scarification treatments were not uniform for the subgenera. Increased H2SO4 scarification durations monitored by viability testing with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TZ) were very effective in determining optimal scarification timing. R. georgicus and R. occidentalis H2SO4-scarified seed treated with GA(3) + KNO3 or smoke germinated significantly better than the other treatments; GA(3) + KNO3, smoke and DI water were equally effective for the other four species. Published by Elsevier B.V. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This research was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service CRIS project 5358-21000-038-00D. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Scientia Horticulturae en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 132 en_US
dc.subject Blackberry en_US
dc.subject Raspberry en_US
dc.subject Scarification en_US
dc.subject Smoke en_US
dc.subject Seed coat en_US
dc.subject Tetrazolium testing en_US
dc.title Standardizing germination protocols for diverse raspberry and blackberry species en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.10.002


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