Black liquor gasification is one of the promising alternatives to
eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional recovery unit of the
kraft process. A numerical model has been developed to simulate an
industrial pilot scale entrained-flow gasifier currently operating at
Tampere, Finland. The objective of the model is to investigate the...
Combustion properties of kraft black liquor solids were studied using a
laminar entrained flow reactor. The tendency of black liquors to release fume
(compounds containing Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻, SO₃²⁻, S₂0₃²⁻ and C0₃²⁻) during
combustion were observed at 1000°C. Black liquor solids with a size fraction of
63 to 100...
The effects of possible operating variables such as
flow rate, surface temperature, bulk temperature, solids
contents, sulfate addition and pH on the fouling of sulfite
spent evaporators were studied.
The study pointed out that the Ca⁺⁺ concentration
difference between heated surface and bulk is the most
important factor for fouling...
Fume, sub-micron aerosal particles in the combustion gases, have been identified
as a cause of extensive plugging and fouling in the heat transfer section of a kraft
recovery boiler in kraft pulp mills. After the deposition on the heat transfer surface,
fume deposits will undergo the sintering process which causes...
Laminar entrained flow reactor (LEFR) was used to determine the effect of
temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen between
gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black
liquor. The operating furnace temperatures were between 400°C-600°C where the effect
The infrared spectra of the metaborate monomer and trimer
ions in NaC1, KC1, and KBr were studied. These spectra contain
bands due to the trimer in solid solution, in a second phase of the appropriate
potassium or sodium salt, and perhaps on adjacent lattice
sites. Furthermore, complex equilibria exist between...