Small pelagic fish species are important fisheries resources for food and have valuable contribution in employment creation. The overall objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic value of small pelagic fishery in Mafia Island. The fishery is artisanal and dominated by men. The dependant on the small pelagic fishery include fishers, fish processor, fish traders, fish transporters, fish carriers, boat builders, and net repairers. They all have contribution in the value chain. The main fishing gear for targeting small pelagic are Purse seine and ring nets. The main targeted species are sardine and mackerel. Motorised fishing vessel are mostly used to target sardine while non-motorised target mackerel. Motorised vessels get more catch per day than non-motorised ones but they have high production cost. Large vessels>10 meter are characterised by having a high number of crew on board. Fishers using small vessels 10 meters). The benefit for boat owners is much high than the benefits for crew. Therefore, vessel with low production cost is encouraged to fishers, for more profit generation. In order to insure application of ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the small pelagic fishery, there is the need of capacity building for fishers and other stakeholders on Fisheries Act and Regulations, fish hygiene and good manufacturing practices, resources management, record keeping and savings. This will help to raise awareness of sustainable fisheries, adequate food security and poverty reduction.