Stratigraphic and structural framework of Himalayan foothills, northern Pakistan Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9c67wr40n

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  • The oldest sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan record a gradual transition seaward from the evaporites of the Salt Range Formation to pelitic sediments deposited in deeper water to the north. The Upper Proterozoic Tanawal Formation was derived from erosion of a northern highland produced during the early stages of Late Proterozoic to early Ordovician tectonism. Early Paleozoic tectonism is indicated by an angular unconformity at the base of the Paleozoic section, the intrusion of the Mansehra Granite, and the local removal of Cambrian strata. Paleozoic shallow-marine strata are preserved in half-grabens created during extensional tectonism that began during the Carboniferous and climaxed with rifting during the Permian. Paleozoic rocks were largely or completely eroded from northwest-trending highlands on the landward side of the rift shoulder. Thermal subsidence of the rifted margin resulted in transgression of the highlands and deposition of a Mesozoic section dominated by carbonates. Compressional tectonism related to the impending collision with Asia commenced in the Late Cretaceous. Rocks north of the Panjal-Khairabad fault were deformed and metamorphosed during Eocene subduction of northern India beneath the Kohistan arc terrane. Following their uplift and exhumation, rocks metamorphosed beneath Kohistan were thrust southward over unmetamorphosed rocks along the Panjal and Khairabad faults which are inferred to be connected beneath alluvium of the Haripur basin. Contrasts in stratigraphy and metamorphism on either side of the Panjal-Khairabad fault indicate that shortening on this structure exceeds that of any other fault in the foothills region. The migration of deformation towards the foreland produced south- or southeast-vergent folds and thrust faults in strata south of the Panjal-Khairabad fault and reactivated Late Cretaceous structures such as the Hissartang fault. The Hissartang fault is the westward continuation of the Nathia Gali fault, a major structure that thrusts Proterozoic rocks in the axis of a Late Paleozoic rift highland southward over Mesozoic strata. Fundamental differences in stratigraphy, metamorphism, and relative displacement preclude straightforward correlation of faults and tectonic subdivisions of the central Himalaya of India and Nepal with the northwestern Himalaya of Pakistan.
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