Influence of biologically stabilized kraft mill effluent on the food relations and production of juvenile chinook salmon in laboratory streams Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/bv73c3010

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  • This thesis reports the results of a study on the influence of biologically stabilized kraft mill effluent (SKME) on the food relations and production of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (Walbaum), in laboratory streams. Experiments were conducted at the Oak Creek Fisheries Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, during 1967 and 1968. Kraft mill effluent used in this study was either collected raw and biologically stabilized at the laboratory, or collected already treated from a mill operating a stabilization pond. Stabilization of wastes was accomplished at the laboratory by sewage bacteria under constant aeration and with the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. One aspect of this study dealt with the relationship between salmon production and salmon biomass in streams stocked with salmon at different densities in three control and three streams receiving 1.5 percent SKME by volume. This design permitted an analysis of the relationships between the abundance of the food organisms and the growth rate and biomass of salmon. Another aspect of the study dealt with the production of fish stocked at similar densities in two control streams and four streams each of which received a different concentration of SKME. In experiments conducted during the spring and fall periods, salmon production was lower in streams receiving a 1.5 percent SKME concentration than in control streams. This difference was attributed to a direct effect of SKME since no reduction in the abundance of food organisms or in the basic capacity of the streams to produce food organisms could be demonstrated. In experiments during the summer salmon production was found to be greater in streams receiving up to 4.0 percent SKME than in control streams. Salmon production was greatest at a 1.0 percent concentration and declined at concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0 percent SKME. The increase in production can probably be attributed to an increase in the numerical density of the major food organism, an amphipod identified as Crangonyx sp. The decline in salmon production at concentrations above 1.0 percent suggested that SKME was directly effecting salmon growth rates during summer experiments also, although this influence may have been small in relation to beneficial effects on food abundance. Amphipod biomass was related to the biomass of organic material in the laboratory streams.
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