Behavior of cellular bulkheads in deep sands Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/cc08hj01d

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  • Large-scale experiments on circular model cell bulkheads were conducted to define the distribution of hoop stresses, deflections of the cells, distortion of the cell fill, ultimate overturning resistance, and the critical mode of failure. The embedment depth of the model cells was varied to investigate the effect of embedment on the behavior of circular cells. The model cells were subjected to typical service loading conditions, including backfilling and backfill surcharging and were failed by application of a large lateral load. Hoop tension during initial cell filling was found to be the critical design consideration for sheetpiles along the back of the cell. Maximum interlock tension occurred within the lower third of the exposed height of the sheetpiles. An apparent coefficient of lateral earth pressure ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 times the active Rankine value is recommended for design of isolated cells. Maximum hoop tension and radial bulging should be assumed to occur at an elevation of one-fourth of the distance from the point of sheetpile fixity to the top of the sheetpile. The depth to fixity may be estimated by theory of elasticity and depends on the quality of the soil in which the cells are embedded. Backfilling and surcharging increased hoop tension by about 25 and 10 percent, respectively. Crest deflections vary linearly with the magnitude of backfill surcharge. Distortion of the model cells at failure indicates that circular cell bulkheads fail as flexible structures. The critical mode of failure for embedded cells was found to be that of tilting about a point of fixity. A plastic hinge forms in the front sheetpiles at the point of fixity. Failure of the cell fill occurs along roughly vertical planes which extend vertically only to the point of tilting. It is shown that the method of analysis by vertical shear using the Rankine or Krynine coefficient significantly underestimates cell overturning resistance. The method of horizontal shear overestimates the overturning resistance for embedded cells by about 35 percent. An apparent coefficient of lateral earth pressure to be used with the proposed failure model is recommended. It is shown that this coefficient depends on sheetpile embedment and fill characteristics, and is significantly larger than previously suggested values. Available field data on circular cell bulkheads, specifically hoop tension and deflection data, is presented and discussed. In general, the trends in field data compare favorably with the results from the model study.
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