Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Instructional methods for dietetic perceptors Public Deposited

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  • This study attempted to answer the following question: What instructional methods should dietetic preceptors use to help dietetic interns meet the performance requirements specified by the American Dietetic Association (ADA, 1991) for entry-level dietitians? A national sample of 170 dietetic preceptors was surveyed. Ninety provided usable information to examine both the instructional methods they used to train interns as well as those methods they might try to use. Thirty instructional methods were grouped into six categories: one-to-one methods, practice/experiential methods, reading-writing methods, lecture-discussion methods, exercises/problem sets and student-directed learning. This study recommends seven "best" methods and seven "best" techniques for preceptors to use when instructing interns. Two methods, supervised practice and unsupervised practice, seemed the most important to include in the training of potential preceptors. These methods are effective, practical, and address criticality pertaining to the health and safety of patients and clients. To a lesser extent cost efficiency in these methods is related to the use of the preceptor's time. Unsupervised practice is the least time-intensive for the preceptor, but requires supporting techniques, such as, feedback or conferencing, to address health and safety issues. Five less expensive methods with equal effectiveness for promoting learning for adults can supplement or support these more costly one-to-one and supervised practice methods. These methods are shadowing, case studies, simulations, student-directed seminars and role playing. In addition, self-instruction, student teams, team building exercises, in-basket exercises and learning contracts can be blended with other instructional methods for better preceptor instruction. Since only 40 percent of the 90 preceptors surveyed reported having any preceptor training, a proposal is made to train new and experienced preceptors in the most applicable methods and techniques they can use in instructing and precepting dietetic interns.
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