Carbonation and its interaction with other sensory modalities Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jm214r41m

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  • The study of carbonation perception is limited, even though carbonated beverages are very popular. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the sensory properties of carbonation itself and its interaction with other sensory modalities. First, the power functions of carbonation in carbonated spring water were developed by a trained panel using two assessing conditions, swallowing and expectoration. Five carbonation levels, 1.2 2.0. 2.5, 3.0, and 3.9 volumes CO2, were employed. The size of the exponents, 2.79 (swallowing) and 2.65 (expectoration), suggested a sharp increase of perceived carbonation magnitude with increasing concentration. There was no significant difference between exponents resulting from the two assessing conditions. Second, the effects of temperature on carbonation perception in carbonated spring water were determined by use of both a trained panel and a naive panel. Two carbonation levels, 2.4 and 3.0 volumes, and four temperature levels, 3°, 10°, 16° and 22°C, were employed. Carbonation intensity was perceived to be higher at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This effect held true for both trained and naive panels. The temperature effect on carbonation perception, however, was carbonation level dependent. Differences were more evident at the higher carbonation level. Thirdly, the mutual effects of carbonation and tastants (sweetener and acidulant) were determined by a trained panel. How CO2 affects sweetness and how sweetener level affects carbonation perception were measured in both sucrose and aspartame sweetened systems. How CO2 level affects sourness and how acid level affects carbonation perception were measured in both citric acid and phosphoric acid acidulated systems. The effects were measured at concentrations of 2-16% (w/v) for sucrose, 0.015-0.12% (w/v) for aspartame, 0.02-0.29% (w/v) for citric acid, and 0.015-0.06% (v/v) for phosphoric acid. Higher carbonation reduced sweetness ratings in aspartame-sweetened samples but had no effect on sweetness in sucrose-sweetened samples. Only the highest concentration of sucrose (16% w/v) reduced carbonation perception. Carbonation enhanced sourness ratings at the lower acid levels and had no effect at higher acid levels for both acid systems. No effect of acid level on carbonation perception was found.
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